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48 Cards in this Set

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What are the three types of neurons?
1. sensory
2. motor
3. interneurons
What does the central nervous system consist of?
brain and spinal cord
What part of the nervous system exists outside the brain and spinal cord?
the peripheral nervous system
Name the four basic parts of a neuron. Visualize a neuron at the same time.
dendrite, soma (cell body), axon and terminal buttons
Which neurons have one axon and one dendritic tree?
bipolar neuron
Which neurons have one extension from the soma and mostly link skin to the brain (touch temperature)?
unipolar
What part of the neuron is the cell body that contains the nucleus?
soma
A branched, treelike structure attached to the soma of a neuron; receives information for the terminal buttons of other neurons is what?
a dendrite
Name it: a junction between the terminal button of an axon ant the membrane of another neuron.
synapse
Name the long, thin, cylindrical structure that conveys information from the soma of a neuron to it's terminal button.
axon
The bud at the end of a branch of an axon: forms the synapses with another neuron; sends information to that neuron is what?
terminal button
What is a neurontransmitter?
A chemical that is released by a terminal button; has an excitatory or inhibitory effect on another neuron.
What is the structure called that consists principally of lipid molecules that defines the outer boundaries of a cell and also constitutes many of the cell organelles, such as the Golgi apparatus?
membrane
What is the structure in the central region of a cell that contains the nucleolus and chromosomes?
nucleus
Which structure is found within the nucleus of a cell that produces the ribosomes?
nucleolus
Name it: a cytoplasmic structure, made of protein, that serves as the site of production of proteins translated from mRNA.
ribosome
What term refers to a direction along an axon from the cell body toward the terminal buttons?
anterograde
What term refers to a direction along an axon from the terminal buttons toward the cell body?
retrograde
What are the supporting cells of the CNS?
glia
A glia cell that provides support for neurons of the CNS, provides nutrients and other substances and regulates the chemical composition of the extracellular fluid. Name it.
atrocyte
What is phagocytosis?
The process by which cells engulf and digest other cells or debris caused by cellular degeneration.
What is a oligodendrocyte?
A type of glial cell in the CNS that forms myelin sheaths.
A naked portion of a myelinated anon, between adjacent oligodendroglia or Schwann cells is called what?
Node of Randier.
What is the smallest of the glia cells; act as phagocytes and protect the brain from invading microorganisms?
microglia
What is a Schwann cell?
A cell in the peripheral nervous system that is wrapped around a myelinated axon, providing one segment of its myelin sheath.
What is the semipermeable barrier between the blood and the brain produced by the cells in the walls of the brain's capillaries?
the blood brain barrier
What is diffusion?
Movement of molecules from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration.
What is an aqueous solution of a material that ionizes -namely a soluble acid, base or salt called?
an electrolyte
What is an ion?
a charged molecule
What are cations?
positively charged molecules
What are anions?
negatively charged molecules
The attractive force between atomic particles charged with opposite signs or the repulsive force between particles charged with the same sign is called what?
electrostatic pressure
What is the fluid contained within cells called?
intracellular fluid
What are body fluids located outside of cells called?
extracellular fluid
What is a protein found in the membrane of all cells that extrudes sodium ions from and transports potassium ions into the cell called?
sodium-potassium transporter
A specialized protein molecule that permits specific ions to enter or leave cells is called what?
ion channel
What is phagocytosis?
The
What is phagocytosis?
The process by which the cells engulf and digest other cells or debris caused by cellular degeneration.
A type of glial cell in the CNS that forms myelin sheaths is what kind of cell?
an oligodenrocyte
What is a myelin sheath?
A sheath that surrounds axons and insulates them, preventing messages from spreading between adjacent axons.
What is the naked portion of a myelinated axon, between adjacent oligodendroglia or Schwann cells?
node of Ranvier
Which are the smallest of the glial cells that act as phagocytes and protect the brain from invading microorganisms?
microglia
What is a Schwann cell?
A cell in the PNS that is wrapped around a myelinated axon, providing one segment of its myelin sheath.
What is the semipermeable membrane barrier between the blood and the brain produced by the cells in the walls of the brain's capillaries?
the blood-brain barrier
What is the area postrema?
A region of the medulla where the blood-brain barrier is weak; poisons can be detected there and can initiate vomiting.
A conductive medium that can be used to apply electrical stimulation or to record electrical potential. What does this describe?
an electrode
What is very fine used to record activity of individual neurons?
a microelectrode
What is the membrane potential of a cell?
The electrical charge across a cell membrane; the difference in electrical potential inside and outside the cell.