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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Empiricism
Knowledge comes from experience via the senses
Structuralism
used introspections (looking in) to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
Functionalism
Focused on how behavioral process function- how they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
Psychology
The science of behavior (what we do) and mental process (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thought, beliefs, and feelings).
Nature-nurture controversy
The relative contribution that genes and experience make to develpment of psychological traits and behaviors
Psychology's Subfields
Basic Research-
Biological, developmental, cognitive, personality, and social
Biological Psychologists
Explore the links between brain and mind
Developmental Psychologists
Study changing abilities from womb to tomb
Cognitive Psychologists
Study how we percieve, think, and sovle problems
Personality Psychologists
Investigate our persistent traits
Social Psychologists
Explore how we view and affect one another
Wilhelm Wundt
Opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig (c. 1879)
Natural Selection
(Evolution, Darwinism)
Principle that those inherited trait variations contributing to survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
Psychology's Subfields
Applied Research
Industrials/ organizations, and Clinical Psychologists
Psychiatry
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders (practical by physicians use medical treatments as well as psychotherapy)
Industrial/ Organizations psychologists
Study and advise on behavior in the workplace
Clinical Psychologists
Study, assess, and treat people with psychological disorders (mental)
Wilhelm Wundt was a _________
Structuralism
William James was a _________
Functionalism
Ivan Pavlov was a __________
Classical Condintioning
Sigmund Freud was a __________
Psychoanalysis
John B. Watson and Pavlov were ________
Behaviorism
Functionalism
the school of psychology associated with William James that emphasized the functions of psychological process that help people survive or adpt to the envirnoment
Hindsight Bias
(9/11)
We tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have forseen it. The I knew it all along phenomenon.
Overconfidence
We tend to think we know more than we do. (Countries suffer from this)
Critical Thinking
Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions
Examples of Critical Thinking
Examins assumptions, Discerns hidden values, Evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
Theory
Ex: evolution
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
Hypothesis
(educated guess, testable predictions)
A testable predictions, often implied as a theory
Operational Definition
A statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables. Ex: intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelliegence test measures.