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72 Cards in this Set

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What event "sparked" the start of WWI?
June 28, 1914
Gavrilo Princip shot Austiran Archduke Ferdinand and wife in Sarajevo
What countries were in the Triple Alliance?
Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary
When was the Triple Alliance formed?
1882
What is the difference between the Triple Alliance and the Central Powers?
Italy fought with Germany and Austria-Hungary in the Triple Alliance but not with the Central Powers in WWI
What was WWI called at that time?
The Great War
What countries were in the Triple Entente?
France, Britain and Russia
What does entente mean?
a non binding agreement to follow a common practice.
What is militarism?
glorification of the military and war, romantic visions of war...
What territory did France lose in the Franco-Prussian war in 1871?
Alsace and Lorraine
Give two examples of how nationalism impacted start of WWI
Slavic nationalism...led to dreams for a Slavic state like Serbia.
nationalism in the Austian-Hungarian empire, fears of splitting up
Who declared war first?
Austria on Serbia, July 28, 1914, one month after the assassination.
Why did Germany declare war on Russia?
Because Russia was mobilizing soldiers to fight in support of Serbia, a slavic people.
Why did Germany declare war on France?
Because France was an ally of Russia and they refused to keep out of the conflict.
Why did Britain enter the war?
Because Germany invaded Belgium and violated Belgium neutrality.
What did the US do at the beginning of the war?
nothing, neutral
What was Germany's Schlieffen Plan?
Quick invasion of France through Belgium, defeat France while Russia was mobilizing, then fight Russia in the East
What did Germany want to avoid?
War on two fronts (West: Europe, East: Russia)
Was the Schlieffen plan successful?
no, it turned into a stalemate on both fronts.
What years were the stalemate?
1915, 1916
What were the two big offensive efforts in 1916 on the Western Front?
German attack at Verdun (lasted 11 months, 500,000 dead or wounded)
Allies attack at the Somme (lasted 5 month, 1 million dead or wounded)
What were two new types of weapons?
machine guns
long range artillery
What is poison gas?
Gas used at a weapon in WWI
What were new vehicles in WWI?
tanks
airplanes
submarines
What happened at the battle of Tannenberg?
Russia lost decisively to Germany, retreated back to Russia
Who did Bulgaria fight with, Allies or Central Powers?
Central Powers
Who did Italy fight with, Allies or Central Powers?
Allies
What happened to Italy at the Battle of Caporetto in 1917?
Austria and Germany attacked, Italy retreated, pushed Italy effectively out of the war.
Which side did the Ottoman Empire fight on ?
Central Powers
Where are the Dardenelles?
straight of water connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea
Why are the Dardenelles important?
Because it is the supply line from the Allies to Russia
What happened at Gallipoli?
10 month battle, 200,000 dead, Allies retreat from the Dardenelles.
What happened to the Armenians in Turkey?
During the war, they were deported to Syria and between 600,000-1.5 million died: GENOCIDE
Who was Lawrence of Arabia?
British colonel supporting Arab nationalists against old Ottoman empire in Arab revolts of 1916.
Give examples of the concept of "total war"
universal military conscription
rational of food and other products on civilians
forced civilian labor
U boats
propaganda
What was the Lusitania?
a British passenger ship that was torpedoed and sunk off Ireland in 1915 by Germans, 1,200 passengers killed
Who was Edith Cavell?
a British nurse executed by Germany for "spying", became a propaganda piece for Britain
When did the US enter the war?
1917
What was the Zimmerman note about?
Note from the German ambassador Zimmerman to the German ambassador in Mexico proposes that Mexico attack the US and Germany would help them to recover lost territory like Texas
What were President Wilson's 14 points about?
terms for ending WWI and prevented future wars
What was the key to President Wilson's 14 points?
Self determination or the right of people to chose their own government.
When did WWI end
November 11, 1918
What is an armistice?
An agreement to end fighting
What was the pandemic of 1918?
Flu virus that circled the globe and killed more than 20 million people.
What are reparations?
payments for war damage
What was the Paris Peace Conference?
Meeting of Allies (not Russia) to discuss the fate of Europe
What was the treaty drawn up at the Paris Peace Conference?
The Treaty of Versailles
What happened to Germany under the Treaty of Versailles/
reparation ($30 billion)- pay the cost of the war
accept blame for the war
return Alsace and Lorraine to France
lose territory in East Germany, becomes Poland,
lose most overseas colonies
How did Germans view the Treaty of Versailles
ANGER, RESENTMENT, UNFAIR... LEADS TO HITLER AND WWII
What happened to most overseas territories
Mandate system, the European countries just divided them up, took over the countries and ruled them like colonies
What was the League of Nations?
40 nations agreed to join, negotiate disputes, take common action, President Wilson's idea
What happened to the League of Nations?
The US Senate refused to pass the treaty so the US never joined and it died away.
Who were the last tsars of Russia?
Nicholas and Alexandra
What was the name of the dynasty of the Russian tsars?
Romanov
Who was Rasputin?
An influential "holy man", Alexandra relies on him to help rule the country while tsar Nicholas is away...Russian nobles kill him.
What is the proletariat?
workers
What is a soviet?
a council of workers and soldiers
What happened in Russia in 1917?
First the tsar steps down (March 1917), then the Bolsheviks led by Lenin take charge (October 1917)
Who was Lenin?
a marxist, leader of the radical Bolshevik party, takes over Russian from provisional government by force.
Who were the Reds and the Whites in the Russian Revolution?
Reds were the Bolsheviks
White were the all others, including tsarist imperial officers, Menshaviks, democrats.
How long did the Russian revolution last?
three years
When did the Communists consolidate power?
by 1922
What was the Checka?
Communist secret police force
Who was Trotsky?
Communist military leader
Who killed the tsar and his family?
Communist, 1918
What did Lenin names former Russia?
USSR, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
When did Lenin die?
1924
Who emerged as the leader of the USSR?
Joseph Stalin
What happened to Trotsky?
Fled Russia in 1929, was murdered in 1940 by Russian agent.
What was the March Revolution?
1917, forces the tsar to abdicate
What was the November Revolution?
provisional government defeated by the Bolsheviks
What treat ended Russia's involvement in WWI?
The Treaty of Brest-Livosk
What does the hammer and sickle represent?
unity between the worker and the farmer