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80 Cards in this Set

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Edict of Nantes
1598 to end religious wars, henry IV of France granted religious toleration. 80 years later it was revooked by Louis XIV who unified religion so he wold have no dissenting groups
Peace of Augsburg
1555 to settle religious conflict within the Holy Roman Empire, each prince was to determine the religion which would prevail his land
Treaty of Paris
1783 ended American Revolution
Congress of Vienna
1814-1815 Remade Europe after the downfall of Napolean. One of the most important in European history
Council of Trent
1545 ecumenical council met to deal with the crisis of the protestant reformation
Diet of Worms
1521, most famous of the imperial diets held at Worms, Germany. To take up the recalcitrant behavior of Luther.
Peace of Westphalia
1648 which ended the Thirty Years' War
Thomas Hobbes
Believed man was violent in a state of nature
best form of gov't is absolute monarchy
opposed to english revolution
didn't like gov't but thought it was necessary to control man (lesser of two evils)
Montesquieu
Anti-absolutist
Power should be divided among many powers (king, parliament, courts...)
Liked England's gov't because it had seperation of power
liked the Middle Ages because there was no centralization of gov't
democracy would only work in small city states
part of the noble resurgence which followed the death of Louis XIV
John Locke
Born with your mind as a blank slate
opposed to rationalism of Descartes
Man is good in a State of Nature
Believed in Man's right to Life, Liberty, and Property, and the people can rebel if they are not permitted these rights by the government
Father of Liberalism
No divine right to rule
Man is governed by reason
Rousseau
Man is good in a State of Nature
Society corrupts the individual
Purpose of gov't is to protect the individual's freedom
Best society is a participatory democracy
Influenced French Revolution
William Hogarth
British Painter and Engraver of modern moral subjects
Enlightenment ideals
Satire
Painted real people, ordinary life
Francois Boucher
Rococo art, 18th century
Rococo: opulence, grace, playfulness, and lightness
Painted nobility, none of the harsh lives people live
Piere Bayle
will be added later
Voltaire
Natural morality, and natural religion
didn't believe in supernatural
reason is enough to determine good from evil
Freedom of Speech
Said "If God did not exist, he would be invented"
Liked Louis XIV
Didn't care how powerful a gov't was as long as it was enlightened
the most inhumane cries have been perpetrated in the name of religion
jj
mistake card, sorry
Piere Bayle
Supported Calvanism but was also an advocate of Religious Toleration, said faith and reason are contradictory
Influenced Hume, skepticism
David Hume
Skepticism and empiricism(experience is the only source of knowledge), humans can no nothing whatsoever with certainty, Moral Relativism-since we dont know anything for certain, we can't judge others' ideas of morality, influenced Adam Smith
Moliere
Playright, used satire to criticize society, wrote the Misanthrope
Adam Smith
Capitalism, thought that increasing wealth of a nation as a whole was the biggest factor in human progress, wrote Wealth of Nations, anti-mercantilism, used "the invisible hand"
Michelangelo
Believed art led one to God, combined piety and humanism thus bridging the Middle Ages and Renaissance
Sir Walter Raleigh
Fought for protestants during French Religious Wars, mercantilist, James I told him not to damage Spanish property and he accidentally set fire to a Spanish Settlement so he was beheaded

Renaissance Man (lots of jobs)
Hernan Cortes
Attacked Mexico to spread Christianity
Took Aztec emperor Montezuma hostage, attempt to convert Aztecs to Christianity failed. Later recaptured the weakened city (small pox epidemic)
Petrarch
Wrote Sonnets, obsessed with a woman named Laura

Scholar and Poet

Humanist
Machiavelli
Wrote The Prince, the end justifies the means, if you can't be feared and loved, it is better to be feared
Botticelli
Birth of Venus
Helped decorate walls of Sistine Chapel
Experienced Religious Rebirth
His subsequent works such as the Pieta reflect an intense relgious devotion
Leonardo Da Vinci
Mona Lisa, didn't finish many of his pieces
Martin Luther
Created Protestantism (began Reformation)
Posted his 95 theses on the Church door
Believed scripture was the only authority
accused of heresy by the church
Girolamo Savonarola
Studies philosophy and medicine
Became a Dominican Monk
Opposed corruption of Church and Medici rule
Burned at the stake in 1498 for heresy and denouncing the pope
Ferdinand and Isabella
Cousins before marrying
United the two most powerful kingdoms of Spain, Castille and Aragon
gov't based on absolutism
Supported Catholic Church
Led Inquisition, forcing Jews and Musilims out of Spain
Financed Columbus
Piere Bayle
Supported Calvanism but was also an advocate of Religious Toleration, said faith and reason are contradictory
Influenced Hume, skepticism
David Hume
Skepticism and empiricism(experience is the only source of knowledge), humans can no nothing whatsoever with certainty, Moral Relativism-since we dont know anything for certain, we can't judge others' ideas of morality, influenced Adam Smith
Moliere
Playright, used satire to criticize society, wrote the Misanthrope
Adam Smith
Capitalism, thought that increasing wealth of a nation as a whole was the biggest factor in human progress, wrote Wealth of Nations, anti-mercantilism, used "the invisible hand"
Michelangelo
Believed art led one to God, combined piety and humanism thus bridging the Middle Ages and Renaissance
Sir Walter Raleigh
Fought for protestants during French Religious Wars, mercantilist, James I told him not to damage Spanish property and he accidentally set fire to a Spanish Settlement so he was beheaded

Renaissance Man (lots of jobs)
Hernan Cortes
Attacked Mexico to spread Christianity
Took Aztec emperor Montezuma hostage, attempt to convert Aztecs to Christianity failed. Later recaptured the weakened city (small pox epidemic)
Petrarch
Wrote Sonnets, obsessed with a woman named Laura

Scholar and Poet

Humanist
Machiavelli
Wrote The Prince, the end justifies the means, if you can't be feared and loved, it is better to be feared
Botticelli
Birth of Venus
Helped decorate walls of Sistine Chapel
Experienced Religious Rebirth
His subsequent works such as the Pieta reflect an intense relgious devotion
Leonardo Da Vinci
Mona Lisa, didn't finish many of his pieces
Martin Luther
Created Protestantism (began Reformation)
Posted his 95 theses on the Church door
Believed scripture was the only authority
accused of heresy by the church
Girolamo Savonarola
Studies philosophy and medicine
Became a Dominican Monk
Opposed corruption of Church and Medici rule
Burned at the stake in 1498 for heresy and denouncing the pope
Ferdinand and Isabella
Cousins before marrying
United the two most powerful kingdoms of Spain, Castille and Aragon
gov't based on absolutism
Supported Catholic Church
Led Inquisition, forcing Jews and Musilims out of Spain
Financed Columbus
St. Ignatius of Loyola
founder of the Jesuit order of Catholics
vowed to serve the pope unquestioningly
worked as a missionary
Albrecht Durer
Artist inspired by Reformation
Represented things as they are not as they should be
beleved all nature (even the seemingly ugly part) is beautiful because it is part of God
Henry VIII
Broke away from Catholic Church to create the Protestant National Church (partly so he could get a divorce) which gave him absolute power
By breaking with the church, England developed its own national identity
Descartes
Knowledge does not come from the senses, it comes from reason, you cannot trust what your seeing to be true
"I think therefore I am"
Doubt everything, except that which can be proven by logic
Rationalism??
Caravaggio
Helped originate Baroque Art
painted the Conversion of St. Paul
Chopin
His music was seen as absolutely incredible, many didn't understand the genius of his work
believed the pauses between the notes is where the excitement comes (the anticipation signals the longing)
Constantly sick
music had an unpredictable flow (like emotions)
Louis XIV
Absolutist ruler in France
Built Versailles
Kept the nobles happy and occupied at Versailles so they wouldn't rebel
revoked Edict of Nantes
Phillip II of Spain
invaded England in 1588 using the "undefeatable" Spanish Armada and lost. wanted to overthrow Elizabeth I
Edmund Burke
Served in the British House of Commons in the 1700's, supported American Revolution against King George III and strongly opposed the French Revolution
Member of the Whig Party
John Stuart Mill
Liberal philosopher, pro-utilitarianism
Empiricist: one must gain knowledge through experience
Utilitarianism
The greatest good for the greatest number
Mary Tudor
(Mary I of England)
Changed England back from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism
Known as Bloody Mary because she had about 300 people executed who were against the religion
Tchaikovsky
Romanticist composer
Oliver Cromwell
Named himseld Lord Protector of England in 1653, made England a republic (Commonwealth of England) but basically led a military dictatorship
Led the Rump Parliament
Charles V
King of France, gained much of its land back during the Hundred Years' War
James I
succeeded Elizabeth I (before this he was James VI of Scotland)
Strongly advocated the Divine Right of Kings
Created a new translation of the bible
published the Book of Sports, allowing people to play games on Sunday if they attended the Church of England first
made peace with Spain
later fought them in a war before his death
Charles I
unfair taxes to get money for wars
Parliament released the Petition of Right saying he could no longer unfairly impose taxes without their consent
Charles Later Dissolved Parliament
wanted religious conformity in England and Scotland
When the Scots rebelled, he had to call parliament back and thus occurred the Long Parliament which made many new laws against Charles's actions
After they issued the Grand Remonstrance, Charles raised an army and started a civil war, lost, and cromwell had him beheaded
Charles II
restored the Stuart Monarchy after Cromwell died
allowed people to worship freely
Parliament made it the law to attend Anglican Church
Karl Mark
Marxism- believes society goes through steps and will eventually be communist
1.Feudalism 2. Capitalism 3. Socialism 4.Communism
Thought Bourgeoisie's rise to power during industrial revolution would eventually die due to their own faults because the proletariat class was getting so large
Friedrich
Romantic Painter in the 19th Century
Painted scenes from Nature
Obsessed with death and afterlife (sketched monuments and sculptures for mausoleums)
painted landscapes
Goya
Romantic Painter
Painted Saturn Devouring His Son--a slightly disturbing painting of a giant monster-like figure eating a person
Also painted the royal family in both happy scenes and gory scenes of war and death
Bernini
Baroque Sculptor and Architect
Sculpted Ecstasy of St. Theresa, architect for the Piazza
David
Sculpture by Bernini (baroque)
revolutionary--movement depicted through stone like it never has been before
Jean-Paul Marat
French Revolution Activist--fought for the poorest people, wanted to stop crimes of the leading class but was willing to do it through violence, seen as the most bloodthirsty person in the revolution. Murdered in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday
Charlotte Corday
Murdered Marat
Idealist
Thought his death would restore all of France
Was later beheaded
Vermeer
Painted Bourgeoise scenes
1600's
Painted Girl with a Pearl Earring
Robespierre
Led the Reign of Terror
"one guides the people by reason, and the enemies of the people by terror"
It is okay to use violence if it is used for a virtuous goal (ends justify means) His goal was a Republic
David
Sculpture by Bernini (baroque)
revolutionary--movement depicted through stone like it never has been before
Jean-Paul Marat
French Revolution Activist--fought for the poorest people, wanted to stop crimes of the leading class but was willing to do it through violence, seen as the most bloodthirsty person in the revolution. Murdered in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday
Charlotte Corday
Murdered Marat
Idealist
Thought his death would restore all of France
Was later beheaded
Vermeer
Painted Bourgeoise scenes
1600's
Painted Girl with a Pearl Earring
Robespierre
Led the Reign of Terror
"one guides the people by reason, and the enemies of the people by terror"
It is okay to use violence if it is used for a virtuous goal (ends justify means) His goal was a Republic
Henry Fuseli
Paintings filled with emotions
"longing for the unobtainable"
Cardinal Richelieu
Louis XIII's chief minister
wanted a centralized government and wanted to consolidate royal power
Pope Alexander VI
Very corrupt pope during the renaissance: had orgies, overuse of indulgences, over elaboration of church rituals, abuse of papal power, pluralism
Gustave Courbet
French Painter who led the realist movement, believed the artist's mission was the pursuit of truth, which would help erase socail contradictions and imbalances