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48 Cards in this Set

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Yuri Andropov
played a dark role in Soviet politics as mastermind of the KGB through the 70's and early 80's; appeared ready to make sweeping changes in the S.U. first secretary of the Communist Party;
Willy Brandt
instituted Ostpolitik which created small but important bridge between East and West;
Leonid Brezhnev
ruled S.u. as President and First Secretary of the Communist Party in early 70's; steered course between that of Stalin and Khrushchev; died in 1982
Nicolae Ceaucescu
executed on television with his wife after government efforts to hodl on to power in Romania led to considerable bloodshed; harsh ruler
Jacques Chirac
Mitterand had to share power with this Guallist as Prime minister; reflected the new rightist majority in the National Assembly
Alexander Dubcek
replaced Novotny as first secretary; Slovak and leader of the moderate reform impulse; decentralized the economy, increased the emphasis on consumer goods, and established more trade with the West; heroic figure of the “Prague Spring”; helped in the “Velvet Revolution”; died in 1992 in a car accident
Mikhail Gorbachev
sponsored by Andropov; a communist who saw the need for far-reaching changes; advancced glasnost (openess) perestroika (reformation) and new thinking; censorship abandoned
Che Guevara
Cuban Revolutionary who called for worldwide revolutionary movement
Vaclav Havel
Czechoslovake center of political gravity in Magic Lantern Theatre where he and other activists montored abuses of human rights and moved against the government in 1989;
Erich Honecker
replaced Walter Ulbricht in 1970; gave East Germany bread and circus
Gustav Husak
ran an orthodox communist S.U. in 1969 in Czechoslovakia
Helmut Kohl
European leader who had good relation with Margaret Thatcher;
Alexi Kosygin
ruled with Brezhnev as premier in the early 70's;
Jean-Marie Le Pen
decline of Communist Party reflected in growht of his Front National, a political movement based on racism, chauvism, and the far-right French politics;
Francois Mitterand
leader of the leftist coalition of socialists and communists in France in 1965; forced de Gaulled into a run-off and lost;
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
first major protest by the German Socialist student Federation directed against this Shah fo Iran during his visit to West Berlin;
Georges Pompidou
the capable premier of France in 1968
Ronald Reagan
211, 217 most closely identified with a government willing to reduce controls and regulations that could hlep create a climate favorable to business; summit with Gorbachev at Reykjavik in 1986;
Andrei Sakharov
an eminent Russian physicist and father of the Russian H-bomb; important because of his work with the Committee for Human Rights
Helmut Schmidt
213, 214 the successor to Willy Brandt; governed West Germany well in 70's and early 80's; successfully weathered the challenges of the Red Army Fraction and the economic downturns;
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
dissident who wrote One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich; not allowed to publish in 60's and not permitted to accept the Nobel Prize for literature in 1970; deported out of S.U. in 1974;
Axel Springer
focus of SDS attacks were his publication empire regarded as the pillar of conservatism or even counterrevolution;
Margaret Thatcher
Transformed the Conservative Party and Great Britain as prime minister; “Iron Lady”; privatzed nationalized industries
Walter Ulbricht
replaced by Honecker in 1970
Lech Walesa
led the strikes in Russia; an electrician at the shipyards
Karol Cardinal Wojtyla
Pope John Paul II, 1978; Polish
Brezhnev Doctrine
stated that socialist countries had an obligation to come to the aid of other socialist countries threatned by counter-revolutionary forces
Front National
a racist chauvinistic and far-right French poltiical movment led by Le Pen
German Socialist Student Federation (SDS)
protested against the established system in Germany; against Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and Axel Springer;
glasnost
Gorbachev’s policy of openness
“Gorby Mania”
Gorbachev was enormously popular in the West
Greens
an outgrowth if the Extra-Parliamentary Opposition of the late 60's; interested primarily in environmentalism
“Night of the Barricades”
the night when in Franch a million people demonstrated
OPEC
lacked influence until the Arab members of the oprganization persuaded the other members to impose eoil embargo on Israel in 1973 war;
Ostpolitik
instituted b y Willy Brandt and created small bridge between East and dWest;
perestroika
Gorbachev’s policy of reformation
Prague Spring
political reform effort that initally appeared in the communist party owed its existence to a kind of renaissance; but began to get out of hand;
“privatization”
Margaret Thatcher’s component of nationalized industries;
Red Brigades
one of the best known terrorist groups in 60's
Red Army Fraction
other terrorist group
“socialism with a human face ”
Czech communists tried to do this; under Husak unstead of Dubcek; didn’t work
Solidarity
grew out of 1970's politics; led by Walesa; unofiically tolerated by Polish government
“stagflation”
described the situation in West Europe in 60's; inflation meant high prices and interest rates, a recession meant uemployment
Stasi
the Ministry of State Security who administered an system of surveillance and repression in East Germany
Thatcherism
privatization, reduction fo inflation, and weakening of trade union power
Velvet Revolution
Revolution in 1989 in Czechoslovakia;
welfare state
deep root in Germany and Great Britain; modern prototype was Sweden; British system became synonymkous with welfare state difference in who paid for services
Yom Kippur War
1973 between Arab states and Israel; provided context for the first oil price shock;