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30 Cards in this Set

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carbohydrates
organic compounds composed of carvon, hudrogen and oxygen ina ratio of avout one carbon atome to tow hdyrogen atoms to one oxygen atom
-# of carbon atoms varies
-some serve as a source of energy
-some as structural material
-moosaccharides, disaccharides polysaccharides
monosaccharides
-monomer of a carbohydrate
-simple sugar
conatains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
general formula for a monosaccharide
(CH20)n
the n is any whole number from 3 to 8
the most common monosaccharides
glucose, fructose,galactose
same molecular formula
different structural formula
the structural formula determines the slifhtly different properties
glucose
main energy for cells
fructose
found in fruies and is rhe sweetest of the monosaccharides
galactose
found in milk
isomers
compounds with a single chemical formula but different structural forms
dissaccharide
two momosaccharides coan comvine in a condensarion reaaction to form a double sugar
polysaccharide
complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides
ie glycogen
glycogen
animals store glucose in this polysaccharide
proteins
-organic compounds mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
-formed from the linkage of monomers
organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acid and a principal component of all cells
-skin, bones muscles are made of protein and enzymes
amino acid
an organic molecule that contains a carboxyl and an amino grop and that makes up proteins, a protein monomer
peptide bond
when two amino acids bond to form a dipeptide
two amino acids form a covalent bond called a peptide
release a water molecule
polypeptides
amino acids often form very long chains
enzymes
RNA or protein molecule that act as biological catalysts
remains unchanged so it can be used many times
essential for the function of cell
many enzymes are proteins
substrate
reactant being catalyzed
Enzyme reactions
the reaction depends on a physical fit between the enzyme molecule and the reactant
the enzyme has a fold to fit into the active site
active site
-folds on the enzyme
-shape which allows the substrate to fit into the site
enzymes
substrate
active site
lipids
large
nonpolar
organic molecule
nonsoluble in water
store more energy per gram because they have larger number of carbon-hydorgen bonds
fatty acids
unbranched carbon chains
make up most lipids
hydrophylic
attracted to water molecules
hydrophobic
water fearing
triglycerides
fats
phosholipids
two ftty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol
waxes
type of structural lipid consist of a long fatty acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain
steroid
MOST lipids are composed of fatty acids
these are composed of four fused carvon rings with functional grops attachrd to them
DNA
contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs cell activities
RNA
stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing protein