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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
all compounds can be classified in two categories
organic compound
inorganic compound
organic compound
a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbohydrates and oxide
compounds made primarily of carbon atoms
most matter in living organisms that is not watr is made of organic compounds
inorganic compounds
with few exceptions do not contain carbon atoms
carbon atoms
four electons on outermost energy level
forms four covalent bonds with other atoms from other elements
also readily vonds awith other carbon atoms
3 types of carbon atom bonds
straight chains
branched
ring
covalent bond
two atoms share a pair of electrons
single bond
two atoms share one pair of electons
double bond
atoms share two pair of electrons
triple bond
atoms share three pair of electrons
organic molecules
can have many shapes and patterns of bonding
functional groups
-clusters of atoms in organic compounds
-these clusters influence the chemical reactions these molecules undergoe
-these clusters influence the characteristics of the molecule
Example of a functional group
-hydroxl group -OH
-important to all living things
-this group can make the molecule polar
hydrophilic
soluble in water
makes a polar molecules
alcohol
-organic compound
-with a hydroxyl group attached to one of its carbon atoms
monomers
a simple molecule that can combine with other like or unlike molecules to make a polymer
hydrolysis
-a chemical reaction between water and another substance to form two or more new substances, a reaction between water and a salt to create an acid or a base
-water is used to breakdown a polymer
polymer
a large molecule that is formed by more than five monomers, or small units
macromolecule
a very large organic molecule, usually a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms
condensation reaction
- opposite of hydrolysis
-a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule
-momomers link to form polymers through
condensation reaction
-water molecule is released when the monomer is added to a polymer
water added to a complex molecule ie polymer
hydrolysis
Energy Currency
-life processes require energy
-energy is available to cells in the form of compounds
-the compounds store energy
adenosine triphosphate
ATP
Stored energy
Resleases energy durinf cell processes enabling odrganisms to function