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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Gram positive bacterial walls are composed of
monolayer of peptidoglycans
Gram neg bacterial walls are composed
multiple layers including an outer layer of lipopolysaccharide membrane.
empiric
antibiotics are often started before the results of that lab test are available.
Antibacterial classification
Broad vs Narrow Spectrum
Broad: effective against a wide range of bacteria in comparison to the narrow spectrum.
Beta lactams (name 5)
Penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbacephems, and penems
Beta lactams
Inhibit cell wall synthesis.
penicillinase
Bacteria have the ability to develop resistance by producing enzymes
Quinolones
Bactericidal
blocks the enzyme responsible for DNA growth.

hazards: no antacids, increase thorphylline toxicity, phototoxic
ciprofloxacin (Cipro) levofloxacin (Levoquin)
Quinolones
Aminoglycoside
used in serious infections
gram -
w/ ampicillin for gram +
bactericidal
aerosol route because of toxicity
Ototoxic, nephrotoxic
Amikacin (Amikin)
gentamicin (Garamycin)tobramycin (Nebcin)
Aminoglycoside
Vancomycin
bactericidal
used life threating infections
gram + cocci
used for MRSA
S.E.: nypotension, nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity.
alternative drug for vancomycin?
Teicoplanin (Targocid)
Protein synthesis Inhibitors
used for pulmonary infection

Erythromycin decreases theophylline metabolism so monitor theophylline levels.
Erythromycin (E-mycin), clarithromycin (Biaxin), azithromycin (Zithromax)
Protein synthesis Inhibitors
Tetracyclines

(it kills it all!!!)
broad spectrum
gram + and -
aerobes, anaerobes,mycoplasms,mycobacteria, chlamydia,spirochetes

hazards:antacids, iron, or dairy products, decrease absorption.
Folate inhibitors
sulfoamides used for easy UTI's
Bactrim, Septra, Gantanol, Gantrisin.
Folate inhibitors
Antitubercular Agents 1st line
1st line primary are bactericidal
Antitubercular Agents
2nd line secondary which are bacteriostatic and only used in combination with 1st line drugs when others have become resistant.
Isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol.
1st line Antitubercular Agents
streptomycin, cycloserine, ethionamide.
2nd line Antitubercular Agents
Factors affecting drug therapy in kids.
Size: body weight, there is a direct relationship between body weight and mass of drug.

Age: neonates and children are not simply little adults.
age definitions
Definitions:
Premie: < 36 weeks.
Neonate: 1st month of postnatal life.
Infant: 1 – 12 months.
Child: 1 – 12 years.
Adolescent: 12 – 18 years.
Adult: > 18 years.
Factors to consider when adminster rx to little ones
Infants can not take pills

Parenteral dosages must be closely watched.

more Total body water in kids will effect the distribution of water soluble drugs.
Liver enzymes have not matured in the neonate & infant.
Renal clearance mechanisms have also not fully developed in the infant.

pharmocokinetic:Some drug effects are opposite of what they become in adults.
gram negative bacteria (7)
pseudomonas
bacteroides
campylobacter
haemophilus
klebsiella
legionella
mycoplasma
gram positive (4)
clostridia
listeria
streptococci
staphylococci
gram + cocci normal flora sputum samples
a-hemolytic streptococci
pneumococci
staphylococcus epidermidis
gram - bacilli normal flora sputm samples
haemophilus influenzae
gram - cocci
neisseria catarrhais
bactericidal anti infectives (3)
penicillins
cephalosporins
vancomycins
bacteriostatic anti infectives (2)
erythromycin
tetracyclines
broad spectrum anti infectives (3)
tetracyclines
ampicillin
cephalosporins
narrow spectrum anti infectives (3)
penicillin
erythromycin
vancomycin
how does beta lactamase work??
destroys beta lactam ring rendering the drug inactive
cehalosporins
same moa as penicillin
but resistant to beta lactamase and have a longer half life
what does ribavirin treat?
respiratory syncytial virus
ribavirin adminstered how??
SPAG II
12-18HRS A DAY FOR 3-7 DAYS
TERATOGENICTY
ACYCLOVIR (ZOVIRAX)
FAMCICLOVIR (FAMVIR)
ANTIVIRAL

TREATS HERPES
ZANAMIVIR (RELENZA)
OSELTAMIVIR (TAMIFLU)
AMANTADINE (SYMMETREL)
RIMANTIDINE (FLUMADINE)
ANTIVIRAL

TREATS INFLUENZA
RIBAVIRIN (VIRAZOLE)
ANTIVIRAL

TREATS REPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS
NYSTATIN (MYCOSTATIN)
ANTI FUNGALS

LOCAL SKIN CANDIDIASIS ORAL THRUSH
AMPHOTERICIN B (FUNGIZONE)
FLUCONAZOLE (DIFLUCAN)
ANTI FUNGALS

HIGHLY TOXIC NEEDS MONITORING

IV SYSTEMIC ORAL THRUSH