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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Dual Alliance, 1879
Germany and Austria-Hungary
Protection against Russia
Congress of Berlin, 1878
• Bulgaria gained independence from Turkey
• Serbia and Montenegro gained independence
• Turks had to give Cyprus to Britain
• Russia gained little, upset at Germany
Three Emperors League
Austria, Germany, Russia
Triple Alliance, 1882
Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary
Triple Entente, 1907
England, France, Russia
Reinsurance Treaty of 1887
Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary
Col. Ardant du Picq
o Cross the deadly zone quickly and with force
o Believed in the power of Elan – the marshal spirit
o Better to be on the offensive - Offensive au outrance (higher morale)
o Skirmishers and 75mm light, mobile gun
German Army - 1914
• Universal military service
• Highly professional army (General Staff)
• Focus on heavy artillery
• Excelled at transportation and communications
• Focus on war with France
• Anticipated importance of machine gun
• Strategy focused on railroads
French Army - 1914
• Agreed to concentrate its fleet in Mediterranean and protect Suez Canal
• Able-bodied males eligible for 2 year service
• Strategy frontal attacks (“sledgehammer”)
Austro-Hungarian Army - 1914
• German Army Lite (patterned after Germans)
• Effects of ethnic diversity
• Universal conscript law
• Officers were Czechs and Slovaks
Russian Army - 1914
• Enormous manpower reserves
• Soldiers known for endurance
• Modern weapons, but fewer of them
• Insufficient industrial capacity
• Poor roads, too few railroads
British Army - 1914
• Agreed to put its navy in the north and protect French shores
• Small, highly-professional colonial army
o Emphasis on marksmanship
• Royal Navy the world’s finest
• Smaller attack strategy (“dagger”)
Franco-Russian Military Convention
first step in diplomatic revolution
Naval Defense Act of 1889
Britain must maintain navy bigger than next two biggest combined
Entente Cordiale
o Resolved colonial differences
o France recognized British Egypt
o France granted free navigation of Suez Canal
Agadir Crisis
o Germans advocated more aggressive foreign policy
o Kiderlen-Wachter
o Germany demanded French Congo in return for French in Morocco
Balkan League
Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Montenegro
- attacked Turks
Schlieffen Plan
Quick war against France, then take on Russia
The Western Front (WWI)
• Battle of the Somme
• Battle of the Marne
• War of stalemate
• Mostly in France
The Eastern Front (WWI)
• War of maneuvers
• Russia offensive into East Prussia
o 1st and 2nd armies under Rennenkampf and Samsonov
o No communication
o Hindenburg and Ludendorff opposed R and S
o Battle of Tanneberg – Germans defeated Russians
• Russia’s General Plehve advanced into Austria
Japan in WWI
o Allied with England
o Declared war on Germany
o Took Germany’s Pacific islands
Turkey in WWI
o Neutral
o Germans wanted to get into Ottoman Empire (oil) – Berlin-Baghdad railroad
o British offered to modernize Ottoman navy but took it back because needed ships for war
o Wilhelm took the opportunity to sell ships to Turks
o Russia declared war on Turkey, who joined Germans
Mesopotamia in WWI
o Churchill’s plan to open up front by taking Gallipoli Peninsula
o Ataturk opposed and British were defeated
Middle East in WWI
o British attacked Iraq
o Took Jerusalem and Damascus and kicked out Turks
Africa in WWI
o Britain won against Germans in South Africa and Cameroon
o Germans held on in East Africa
Battle of Jutland
Britain vs. Germany
only great sea battle of WWI
Versailles Treaty
o Article 231
War Guilt Clause – Germany started war
o Indemnity of 20 billion marks
o Demilitarization of Rhineland
o Internationalization of the Ruhr
o Loss of Alsace and Lorraine
o Military limitations
Reichswehr of 100,000 soliders
No combat airplanes or dirigibles
No warships larger than 10,000 tons
No submarines