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129 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the _____ is responsible for amino acid metabolism
liver
what is glycogenesis
conversion of glucose into complex sugar for storage
_________ is the complex sugar stored in the liver for when sugar is extremely low
glycogen
when the liver breaks glycogen into glucose and releases it into the blood it is called what
glycogenolysis
Phagocytosis, phagocytosis, detoxification and storage of vital nutrients are done by
liver
located on the underside of and connected to the liver is the what
gallbladder
where is the cystic duct
connecting the gallbladder to the liver
where is the common bile duct located
at the joint of the cystic duct and the hepatic duct
when does the gallbladder release bile
when chime with fat contents are detected in the chyme in the duodenum
what is the route of bile
from the cystic duct to the common duct to the duodenum
why is bile important
it helps to emulsify fats
where is the pancreas located
upper left quadrant behind the stomah
what is the exocrine function of the pancreas
manufacture trypsin for protein breakdownm pancreatic lipase for fat breakdown, pancreatic amylase for carb breakdown and sodium bicarbonate to neutralize acidic stomach contents
where is the main pancreatic duct
extends the length of the pancrease
endocrine functions of the pancreas
manufacture insulin
what is the function of insulin
to make it possible for glucose to bass from blood through cell membranes to be used for energy and to promote conversion of glucose into glycogen
glucagon is what
a hormone that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose when the body needs it
which cells secrete insulin
alpha cells
baby teeth are also called primary teeth and _________ _____
deciduous teeth
how many deciduous teeth do humans have
10 on top and 10 on bottom
secondary teeth are also
permanent teeth
there are ____ top and ___ bottom secondary teeth
16 16
chisel shaped with sharp edges for biting
incisors
single poin useful for grasping and tearing food
canine or cuspid
flat surfaces with multiple cusps for crushing and grinding food
bicuspids (premolars) and molars
name the parts of the tooth
crown, enamel, neck, root, root canal, dentin, and cementum
the _____ is the visible part of the tooth which is covered by ______, the hardest substance in the body
crown, enamel
where is the neck of the tooth located
just below the gumline
which part of the tooth is embeded in the jaw bone
root
the central core is also called the pulp cavity
root canal
the bulk of the tooth is
dentin
the neck and root areas are surrounded by a thin hardened connective tissue called
cementum
amyl/o
starch
-ase
enzyme
-us
noun ending
lith/o
stone, calculus
-iasis
presence of abnormal condition
duoden/o
duodenum
-um
noun ending
esophag/o
esophagus
-us
noun ending
gastr/o
stomach
enter/o
small intestine
-logist
one who specializes in the study of
gingiv/o
gums
-a
noun ending
gluc/o
sugar, sweet
-gen
that which generates
-genesis
the production or formation of
-lysis
destruction or detatchment
hepat/o
liver
cyt/o
cell
-e
noun ending
ile/o
ileum
jejun/o
jejunum
lip/o
fat
-ase
enzyme
cardi/o
heart
-ac
pertaining to
or/o
mouth
pharyng/o
pharynx
rect/o
rectum
append/o
appendix
appendic/o
appendix
bil/i
bile
bucc/o
cheek
cec/o
cecum
celi/o
pertaining to the abdomen
-cemtesos
surgical puncture
cheil/o
lips
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
cirrh/o
yellow, tawny
col/o
colon
colon/o
colon
dent/o
tooth
-ectasia
stretching or dialation
-emesis
to vomit
enter/o
intestine
gloss/o
tongue
lapar/o
abdominal wall
lingu/o
tongue
lith/o
stone;calculus
mandibul/o
mandible
odont/o
teeth
pancreat/o
pancreas
-pepsia
state of digestion
-phagia
to eat
peritone/o
peritoneum
-plasty
surgical repair
proct/o
anus or rectum
-rrhagia
excessive flow or discharge
-rrhaphy
suturing
sial/o
salivary gland; saliva
sigmoin/o
sigmoid colon
-spasm
twitching; involuntary contraction
steat/o
fat
stomat/o
mouth
-tresia
perforation
-tripsy
intentional crushing
absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juices
achlorhydria
inability to eat
anorexia
loss of the ability to swallow
aphagia
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavith; contains large amounts of protein and electrolytes
ascites
rumbling, gurgling and tinkling noises heard when listening to the abdomin with a stethascope
borborygmus
uncomfortable feeling of fullness, heartburn, bloating, and nausea
dyspepsia
difficulty swallowing commonly associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus
dysphagia
excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutrition
emaciation
vomiting
emesis
belching
eructation
passing gas through the rectum
flatus or flatulence
backflow of contents of the stomach into the esophagus that is often the result of incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter
gastroesophageal lreflux
jaundice
icterus
abnormal, black, tarry stool containing digested blood
melena
unpleasant sensation leading to the urge to vomit
nausea
common chronic condition of itching or the skin around the anus
pruritus ani
greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces characterized by frothy foul-smelling fecal matter that floats as in celia disease
steatorrhea
vomit
to expel the contents of the stomach through the esophagus and out of the mouth
decrease mobitlity of the lower two-thirds of the esophagus along with constriction of the lower esophagus
achalasia
an abnormal passageway in the skin surface near the anus usually connecting with the rectum; may occur as a result of a draining abscess
anal fistula
noninfectious ulcerated lesions occurring on the lips, tongue and inside the mouth; also called canker sores
aphthous stomatitis
nutrient malabsorption due to damaged small bowel mucosa; occurs because of ingestion of gluten-containing foods
celiac disease
clinical manifestations of gluten-sensitive disease of the small intestine, when untreated, include steatorrhea, abdominal distension, and a malnourished appearance
celiac disease
indicates a large number of polyps in the large bowel
chronic polyposis
small growth projecting from a mucous membrane
polyp
disease of the liver that is chronic and degenerative causing injury to the hepatocytes
cirrhosis
presence of a malignant neoplasm in the large intestine
colorectal cancer
risk factors including the ingestion of a high-fat, low-residue diet that is high in refined foods, a history of crohns disease, ulcerative colitis, ibs, or familial polyposis
colorectal cancer
digestive tract inflammation of a chronic nature causing fever, cramping, diarrhea, weight loss, and anorexia
crohns disease
tooth decay caused by acid-forming microorganisms
dental caries