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58 Cards in this Set

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DEFINE BODY MECHANICS
COORDINATED EFFORTS OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL AND NERVOUS SYS. IN MOVING AND LIFTING THE BODY

ASSISTS IN MAINTAINING BALANCE, POSTURE AND BODY ALIGNMENT
BODY ALIGNMENT AND POSTURE ARE THE SAME.
REFER TO THE POSITIONING OF THE JOINTS TENDONS LIGAMENTS AND MUSCLES WHILE STANDING SITTING AND LYING.
BODY ALIGNMENT MEANS THAT THE CENTER OF GRAVITY IS STABLE AND BODY STRAIN IS MINIMIZED
BODY ALIGNMENT CONTRIBUTES TO BODY BALANCE
DEFINE FRICTION
A FORCE THAT OCCURS IN A DIRECTION TO OPPOSE MOVEMENT

FRICTION MUST BE OVERCOME WHEN THE NURSE TURNS OR MOVES A PT UP IN BED
FRICTION CAN BE REDUCED BY LIFTING A PT INSTEAD OF PUSHING THE PT
LIFT INSTEAD OF PUSH
LONG BONES CONTRIBUTE TO
HEIGHT
PT'S W/ DECREASED CALCIUM REGULATION AND METABOLISM ARE AT RISK FOR DEVELOPING
OSTEOPOROSIS AND PATHOLOGICAL FRACTURES ( CAUSED BY WEAK BONE TISSUE)
JOINTS
THE CONNECTIONS BTWN BONES
SYNOSTIC JOINT
BONES JOINTED BY BONES

NO MOVEMENT

IE THE SACRUM WHERE VERTEBRAE ARE JOINED
CARTILAGENOUS JOINT ( AKA SYNCHONODIAL )
LITTLE MOVEMENT, IT IS ELASTIC AND USES CARTILEDGE TO UNITE BODY SURFACES

IE THE JOINTS BTWN THE STERNUM AND RIBS
FIBROUS JOINT ( SYNDESMODIAL )
TWO BONY SURFACES ARE UNITED BY A LIGAMENT OR MEMBRANE

LIMITED AMT OF MOVEMENT

IE THE PAIRED BONES OF THE OF THE TIBIA AND FIBULA
SYNOVIAL JOINT
TRUE JOINT
FREELY MOVABLE
LIGAMENTS
WHT , SHINY, FLEXIBLE BANDS OF FIBROUS TISSUE THAT BIND JOINTS TOGETHER.

THEY ARE ELASTIC AND AID IN JOINT FLEXIBILITY AND SUPPORT
TENDONS
STRONG, FLEXIBLE AND INELASTIC

ACHELIS TENDON IS THE STRONGEST AND THICKEST IN THE BODY
CARTILEDGE
NONVASCULAR...IT IS ALSO UNOSSIFIED ( NOT HARD ) EXCEPT FOR PT'S W/ OSTEOARTHRITIS AND ELDERLY PT'S
CONCENTRIC TENSION
MUSCLE CONTRACTION CAUSES MUSCLE SHORTENING ...RESULTING IN MOVEMENT

IE ..WHEN A PT USES THE TRAPEZE TO PULL UP IN BED
ECCENTRIC TENSION
HELPS CONTROL THE SPEED AND DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT.
CONCENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC MUSCLE ACTIONS ARE NECESSARY FOR ACTIVE MOVEMENT AND ARE THEREFORE REFERRED TO AS DYNAMIC OR ISOTONIC CONTRACTION
ISOTONIC CONTRACTION + CONCENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC
ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION ( STATIC CONTRACTION)
CAUSES AN INCREASE IN MUSCLE WORK...NO MOVEMENT OF THE MUSCLE

ENERGY EXPENDITURE IS INCREASED ( EX OF THE CAR IN NEUTRAL, REVING THE GAS)

IE TIGHTENING AND RELAXING THE BUTT MUSCLES
WHAT KIND(S) OF MOVEMENT ARE ASSOCIATED WITH VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT
A COBO OF ISOTONIC AND ISOMETRIC CONTRACTIONS
leverage
WHEN BONES AND JOINTS WORK TOGETHER AND ACT AS A LEVER
MUSCLES THAT ARE ASSOCIATED WITH POSTURE ARE
SHORT, FEATHERLIKE
MUSCLE TOME
THE NORMAL STATE OF BALANCED MUSCLE TENSION.

TENSION IS ACHIEVED BY ALTERNATE CONTRACTION AND RELAXATION....W/O ACTIVE MOVEMENT OF NEIGHBORING FIBERS
WHICH SYSTEMS REGULATE POSTURE
MOVEMENT AND POSTURE ARE REGULATED BY THE NERVOUS SYS.
SCOLIOSIS
THE LATERAL S CURVEATURE OF THE SPINE...UNEQUAL HEIGHTS OF HIPS AND SHOULDERS
THE NORMAL INDIVIDUAL LOSES ____ % OF MUSCLE EACH AND EVERY DAY THEY'RE IMMOBILE
3%
WHEN MORE NITROGEN IS EXCRETED THAN IS , THE BODY IS SAID TO HAVEINGESTED IN PROTEINS
NEGATIVE NITROGEN BALANCE
PROTEIN LOSS LEADS TO
MUSCLE LOSS
IMMOBILITY CAUSES THE RELEASE OF CALCIUM INTO CIRCULATION
CALCIUM RESORPTION ( LOSS) RESULTS IN URINARY EXCRETION OF CALCIUM INCREASES
USUALLY, THE KIDNEYS ARE ABLE TO HANDLE EXCESS CALCIUM EXCRETION,,,HOWEVER IF THEY CAN'T....HYPERCALCEMIA RESULTS
NOTE
CLASSIFICATION FOR ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION ( BP )
A DROP OF 20 MM HG SYS, A DROP OF 10 MMHG IN DIASTOLIC
WHAT ARE THE RESULTS OF ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION
DECREASED VENOUS RETURN
DECREASE IN CARDIAC OUTPUT
A DECLINE IN BP

THE HEART WORKS HARDER AND LESS EFFICIENT DURING PERIODS OF PROLONGED REST

AS IMMOBILIZATION INCREASES ...CARDIAC OUTPUT FALLS, DECREASING CARDIAC EFFICIENCY AND INCREASING WORKLOAD
BECAUSE OF PROTEIN BREAKDOWN , THE PT LOSES LEAN BODY MASS WHICH IS COMPOSED PARTIALLY OF MUSCLE
MUSCLE WEAKNESS ALWAYS OCCURS WITH IMMOBILITY...PROLONGED IMMOBILITY OFTEN LEADS TO MUSCLE ATROPHY
IMMOBILITY CAUSES TWO SKELETAL CHANGES ..THEY ARE
IMPAIRED CALCIUM METABOLISM AND JOINT ABNORMALITIES


BECAUSE IMMOBILIZATION RESULTS IN RESORPTION ,,,THE BONE TISSUE IS LESS DENSE OR IS ATROPHIED AND DISUSE OSTEOPOROSIS OCCURS
OSTEOPOROSIS
80% WOMEN

20% MEN
FOOTDROP
THE FOOT IS PERMANENTLY FIXED IN PLANTAR FLEXION
URINARY OUTPUT MAY DECLINE ON OR ABOUT THE 5TH OR 6TH DAY AFTER IMMOBILIZATION, AND THE URINE IS HIGHLY CONCENTRATED ( INCREASES THE RISK FOR CALCULI FORMATION)
NOTE
HOW IS A PRESSURE ULCER INITIALLY CHARACTERIZED
USUALLY BY INFLAMMATION AND FORMS OVER A BONY PROMINENCE
PRESSURE ULCERS
ISCHEMIA ( DECREASED BLOOD SUPPLY) DEVELOPS WHEN THE PRESSURE ON THE SKIN IS GREATER THAN THE PRESSURE INSIDE THE BLOOD VESSELS SUPPLYING BLOOD TO THE SKIN
PRESSURE AFFECTS CELLULAR METABOLISM BY DECREASING OR OBLITERATING TISSUE CIRCULATION
TO PREVENT SKIN BREAKDOWN...A PT SHOULD BE TURNED EVERY 2 HRS AT A MINIMUM
A PASSIVE PT ALLOWS THE NURSE TO PERFORM CARE...BUT ISN'T INTERESTED IN INCREASING INDEPENDENCE OR INV. IN CARE
NOTE
NURSING ASSESSMENT IS PRESENTED IN TWO SECTIONS
MOBILITY AND IMMOBILITY...BOTH ARE ASSESSED DURING THE COMPLETE PHYSICAL EXAM
GENERALLY, THE NURSE STARTS ASSESSING MOVEMENT WHILE THE PT IS
LYING----> SITTING ON BED---> TRANSFER TO CHAIR---> GAIT
THIS PROVIDES SAFETY TO THE PT
SAGI T T AL PLANE
DIVIDES BODY INTO LT AND RT

MOVEMENTS ARE FLEXION AND EXTENSION ( FINGERS AND ELBOWS)
FRONTAL PLANE
FRONT AND BACK

ABDUCTION / ADDUCTION IE ARMS AND LEGS
TRANSVERSE PLANE
DIVIDES THE BODY INTO UPPER AND LOWER

PRONATION AND SUPINATION
ACTIVITY TOLERANCE ASSESSMENT INCLUDES
DATA FROM PHYSIOLOGICAL EMOTIONAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL DOMAINS
HOW DOES A NURSE ASSESS FOR A DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS
REMOVE STOCKINGS EVERY 8 HRS, OBSERVE THE CALVES FOR REDNESS, WARMTH, AND TENDERNESS
SKIN SHOULD BE ASSESSED EVERY 2 HRS
NOTE
WHEN EXPERIENCING A PULMONARY EMBOLI, WHAT IS THE MOST COMMON SYMPTOM
CONFUSION IS THE PRIMARY SYMPTOM
PROPHYLAXIS
TO PREVENT DISEASE,,,RATHER THAN TO TREAT A DISEASE
COMMON DOSE OF HEPRIN ( ANTI COAGULANT)
5000 UNITS
IF A PT HAS AN IMMOBILE LOWER EXTREMITY,,,THE TRANSFER SHOULD BE TOWARDS
THE UNAFFECTED LEG
PASSIVE ROM EXCERCISES SHOULD BE REPEATED
5 TIMES DURING THE SESSION
PASSIVE ROM EXCERCISES ARE PERFORMED USING
A HEAD TO TOE SEQUENCE, MOVING FROM LARGER TO SMALLER JOINTS
HEMIPLEGIA
ONE SIDED PARALYSIS
HEMIPARESIS
ONE SIDED WEAKNESS
THE NURSE ALWAYS STANDS ON THE PT'S __________ SIDE
AFFECTED