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287 Cards in this Set

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Negative-stranded Viruses
Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail Replication Horribly. (Arenaviruses, Bunyaviruses, Paramyxoviruses, Orthomyxoviruses, Filoviruses, Rhabdoviruses, and Hepatitis delta virus.)
Segmented viruses
BOAR. (Bunyaviruses, Orthomyxoviruses (influenza viruses),Arenaviruses, and Reoviruses.)
PERCH (Poliovirus. Echovirus. Rhinovirus, Coxsackievirus, HAV)
TORCH infection
a set of perinatal infections: Toxoplasmosis; Other infections; Rubella; CMV; HSV
3 C’s of measles
Cough; Coryza; Conjunctivitis
Negri body
cytoplasmic inclusions in neurons infected by rabies virus.
Fever Transmitted by Bites (Flavivirus, Togavirus, and Bunyavirus )
Block protein synthesis at 50S ribosomal subunit
Chloramphenicol, macrolides, clindamycin, streptogramins (quinupristin, dalfopristin), linezolid
Block protein synthesis at 30S ribosomal subunit
Aminoglycosides, tetracylines
Erythromycin. Clindamycin, Sulfamethoxazole, Trimethoprim, Tetracyclines, Chloramphenicol
Vancomycin, FluoroquinoIones, Penicillin,Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins, Metronidazole.
ampicillin/amoxcillin coverage
HELPS kill enterococci (Haemophilus influenzae, E. coli. Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis. Salmonella, enterococci)
Ticarcillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin
TCP: Takes Care of Pseudomonas.
Cephalosporins 1st generation
PEcK: Proteus mirabilis, E. eoli. Klebsiella pneumoniae
Cephalosporins 2st generation
HEN PEcKS: Haemophilus influenzae. Enterobacter aerogenes. Neisseria spp., Proteus mirabilis, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens
Tetracyclines clinical use
VACUUM THe Bed Room. Vibrio cholerae, Acne, Chlamydia, Ureaplasma, Urealyticum, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Tularemia, H. pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease), Rickettsia.
Sulfa drug allergies
sulfonamides, sulfasalazine, sulfonylureas, thiazide diuretics, acetazolamide, or furosemide.
Anaerobic infection above the diaphragm
Anaerobic infection below the diaphragm
Metronidazole clinical use
GET GAP on the Metro! Antiprotozoal. Giardia, Entamoeba, Trichomonas, Gardnerella vaginalis, Anaerobes (Bacteroides, Clostridium). H. Pylori
side effect of ethambutol
optic neuropathy (red-green color blindness)
Rifampin’s 4 R’s
RNA polymerase inhibitor; Revs up microsomal P-450; Red/orange body fluids; Rapid resistance if used alone
Antibiotics to avoid in pregnancy
SAFE Moms Take Really Good Care. Sulfonamides––kernicterus. Aminoglycosides––ototoxicity. Fluoroquinolones––cartilage damage. Erythromycin––acute cholestatic hepatitis in mom (and clarithromycin––embryotoxic). Metronidazole––mutagenesis. Tetracyclines––discolored teeth, inhibition of bone growth. Ribavirin (antiviral)––teratogenic. Griseofulvin (antifungal)––teratogenic. Chloramphenicol––“gray baby.”
Mesodermal defects: Vertebral defects, Anal atresia, Cardiac defects, Tracheo-Esophagcal fistula, Renal defects. Limb detects (bone and muscle).
Fetal erythropoiesis
Young Liver Synthesizes Blood. 1. Yolk sac (3-8 wk) 2. Liver (6-30 wk) 3. Spleen (9-28 wk) 4. Bone marrow (28 wk onward)
Branchial apparatus
CAP: Clefls = ectoderm, Arches = mesoderm, Pouches = endoderm
Multiple sclerosis, hay fever, SLE, Goodpasture's
Diabetes mellitus type 1
Rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellilus type l
Pernicious anemia→B12 deficiency, Hshimoto's thyroiditis.
Steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome
Craves' disease.
cytokines function
Hot T-Bone stEAk: IL-1: fever (Hot); IL-2: stimulate T cells; IL-3: stimulates Bone marrow. IL-4: stimulates IgE production. IL-5: stimulate IgA production. IL-8 major chemotactic factor for neutrophils. IL-10 inhibits Th1 activates Th2. IL-12 activates NK and Th1. γ-interferon stimulates macrophages, activates Th1, inhibits Th2. TNF keukocyte recruitment, vscular leak, septic shock.
Cell surface proteins, Helper T cells
CD4, TCR, CD3, CD28, CD40L
Cell surface proteins, Cytotoxic T cells
Cell surface proteins, B cells
IgM, CD19, CD20, CD21 (receptor for EBV), CD40, MHC II, B7
Cell surface proteins, Macrophages
MHC II, B7, CD40, CD14. Receptors for Fc and C3b.
Cell surface proteins, NK cells
Receptors for MHC I, CD16 (binds Fc of IgG), CD56.
Cell surface proteins,All cells except mature red cells
Antinuclear antibodies (ANA)
Anti-dsDNA, anti-Smith
Specific for SLE
Drug-induced lupus
Rheumatoid arthritis (rheumatoid factor)
Scleroderma (CREST)
Anti-Scl-70 (anti-DNA topoisomerase I)
Scleroderma (diffuse)
1° biliary cirrhosis
Antigliadin, antiendomysial
Celiac disease
Anti–basement membrane
Goodpasture’s syndrome
Pemphigus vulgaris
Antimicrosomal, antithyroglobulin
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
Polymyositis, dermatomyositis
Anti-SS-A (anti-Ro), Anti-SS-B (anti-La)
Sjögren’s syndrome
Anti-U1 RNP (ribonucleoprotein)
Mixed connective tissue disease
Anti–smooth muscle
Autoimmune hepatitis
Anti–glutamate decarboxylase
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
Wegener’s granulomatosis
Other vasculitides
Hypersensitivity disorders: Allergic rhinitis (hay fever)
Type I
Hypersensitivity disorders: eczema
Type I
Hypersensitivity disorders: hives
Type I
Hypersensitivity disorders: asthma
Type I
Hypersensitivity disorders: Hemolytic anemia
Type II
Hypersensitivity disorders: pernicious anemia
Type II
Hypersensitivity disorders: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Type II
Hypersensitivity disorders: Erythroblastosis fetalis
Type II
Hypersensitivity disorders: Rheumatic fever
Type II
Hypersensitivity disorders: Goodpasture’s syndrome
Type II
Hypersensitivity disorders: Bullous pemphigoid
Type II
Hypersensitivity disorders: Pemphigus vulgaris
Type II
Hypersensitivity disorders: Graves’ disease
Type II
Hypersensitivity disorders: Myasthenia gravis
Type II
Hypersensitivity disorders: SLE
Type III
Hypersensitivity disorders: Rheumatoid arthritis
Type III
Hypersensitivity disorders: Polyarteritis nodosa
Type III
Hypersensitivity disorders: Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Type III
Hypersensitivity disorders: Serum sickness
Type III
Hypersensitivity disorders: Arthus reaction (e.g., swelling and inflammation following tetanus vaccine)
Type III
Hypersensitivity disorders: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (e.g., farmer's lung)
Type III
Hypersensitivity disorders: Type I DM
Type IV
Hypersensitivity disorders: Multiple sclerosis
Type IV
Hypersensitivity disorders: Guillain-Barré syndrome
Type IV
Hypersensitivity disorders:Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
Type IV
Hypersensitivity disorders: Graft-versus-host disease
Type IV
Hypersensitivity disorders: PPD (test for M. tuberculosis)
Type IV
Hypersensitivity disorders: Contact dermatitis
Type IV
Bruton's agammaglobulinemia
[XR]. Defect in BTK, a tyrosine kinase gene → blocks B-cell differentiation/maturation. Recurrent bacterial infections after 6 months due to opsonization defect. Normal pro-B,↓ maturation, ↓ number of B cells, ↓ immunoglobulins of all classes.
Hyper-IgM syndrome
Defective CD40L on helper T cells = inability lo class switch. Severe pyogenic infections early in life. ↑ IgM; ↓↓IgG, IgA. IgE.
Selective Ig deficiency
Defect in isotype switching →deficiency in specific class of immunoglobulins. Sinus and lung infections, milk allergies and diarrhea. Anaphylaxis on exposure to blood products with IgA. IgA deficiency most common. Failure to mature into plasma cells, ↓secretory IgA.
Common variable immimodeficiency (CVID)
Defect in B-cell maturation; many causes. Can be acquired in 20s-30s; ↑ risk of autoimmune disease, lymphoma, sinopulmonary Infections. Normal number of B cells;↓ plasma cells, immunoglobulin.
IL-12 receptor deficiency
↓Th1 response. Disseminated mycobacterial infections. ↓ IFN-γ.
Hyper-IgE syndrome (Job's syndrome)
Th cells fail to produce IFN-y→ inability of neutrophils to respond to chemotactic stimuli. FATED: coarse Facies, cold (noninflamed) staphylococcal Abscesses, retained primary Teeth, ↑ IgE, Dermatologic problems (eczema).
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
Several types: defective IL-2 receptor (most common, X-linked), adenosine deaminase deficiency, failure to synthesize MHC II antigens. Recurrent viral, bacterial. fungal, and protozoal infections due to both B-and T-cell deficiency, Treatment: bone marrow Iransplant (no allograft rejection).
Defect in DNA repair enzymes. Triad: cerebellar defects (ataxia), spider angiomas (telangiectasia}, IgA deficiency.
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
[XR]. Progressive deletion of B and T cells. TIE: Thrombocytopenic purpura, Infections, Eczema. ↑ IgE. IgA; ↓ IgM.
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (type 1)
Defect in LFA-1 integrin (CD 18) protein on phagocytes. Recurrent bacterial infections, absent pus formation, delayed separation of umbilicus. Neutrophilia.
Chédiak-Higashi syndrome
[AR]; defect in microtubular function with ↓ phagocytosis. Recurrent pyogenic infections by staphylococci and streptococci; partial albinism, peripheral neuropathy.
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD)
Lack of NADPH oxidase → reactive oxygen species (e.g., superoxide) and absent respiratory burst in neutrophils.↑susceptibity to catalase-positive organisms (e.g., S. aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus). Negative Nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction test.
interleukin-2. Renal cell carcinoma, metastatic melanoma
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Recovery of bone marrow
GM-CSF, Recovery of bone marrow
Hepatitis B and C, Kaposi’s sarcoma, leukemias, malignant melanoma
Multiple sclerosis
Chronic granulomatous disease
interleukin-11. Thrombocytopenia
Neutrophils chemotaxis
CILK: C5a, IL-8, Leukotriene B4, and Kallikrein recruit
Granulomatous diseases
1. TB (cascatiiig), 2. syphilis. 3. Listeria monocytogenes. 4. Wegener's granulomatosis. 5. leprosy, 6. Bartonella, 7. some fungal pneumonias. 8. sarcoidosis, 9. Crohn's disease. Granuloma formation is IL-2, interferon-y mediated.
Oncogenes: abl
Oncogenes: c-myc
Burkitt’s lymphoma
Oncogenes: bcl-2
Follicular and undifferentiated lymphomas (inhibits apoptosis)
Oncogenes: erb-B2
Breast, ovarian, and gastric carcinomas
Oncogenes: ras
Colon carcinoma
Oncogenes: L-myc
Lung tumor
Oncogenes: N-myc
Oncogenes: ret
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types II and III
Oncogenes: c-kit
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)
Tumor suppressor gens: Rb
13q, Retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma
Tumor suppressor gens: BRCA1
17q, Breast and ovarian cancer
Tumor suppressor gens: BRCA2
13q, Breast cancer
Tumor suppressor gens: p53
17p, Most human cancers, Li-Fraumeni syndrome
Tumor suppressor gens: p16
9p, Melanoma
Tumor suppressor gens: APC
5q, Colorectal cancer
Tumor suppressor gens: WT1
11p, Wilms’ tumor
Tumor suppressor gens: NF1
17q, Neurofibromatosis type 1
Tumor suppressor gens: NF2
22q, Neurofibromatosis type 2
Tumor suppressor gens: DPC
18q, Pancreatic cancer. DPC––Deleted in Pancreatic Cancer.
Tumor suppressor gens: DCC
18q, Colon cancer. DCC––Deleted in Colon Cancer.
Tumor markers: Bombesin
Neuroblastoma, lung and gastric cancer.
Tumor markers: TRAP
Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Hairy cell leukemia––a B-cell neoplasm.
Tumor markers: S-100
Melanoma, neural tumors, astrocytomas.
Chemical carcinogens: Aflatoxins
Liver (hepatocellular carcinoma)
Chemical carcinogens: Vinyl chloride
Liver (angiosarcoma)
Chemical carcinogens: CCl4
Liver (centrilobular necrosis, fatty change)
Chemical carcinogens: Nitrosamines
Esophagus, stomach
Chemical carcinogens: Cigarette smoke
Larynx (squamous cell carcinoma), lung (squamous cell and small cell carcinoma), renal cell carcinoma, bladder (transitional cell carcinoma)
Chemical carcinogens: Asbestos
Lung (mesothelioma and bronchogenic carcinoma)
Chemical carcinogens: Arsenic
Skin (squamous cell carcinoma), Liver (angiosarcoma)
Chemical carcinogens: Naphthalene (aniline) dyes
Bladder (transitional cell carcinoma)
Psammoma bodies
PSaMMoma: Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid; Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of ovary; Meningioma; Malignant mesothelioma
Metastasis to brain
Lots of Bad Stuff Kills Glia. Lung, Breast, Skin (melanoma), Kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI, Overall, approximately 50% of brain tumors are from metastases.
Metastasis to liver
Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Benign Liver. Colon > Stomach > Pancreas > Breast > Lung.
Metastasis to bone
Prostate (blastic), Breast (Both lytic and blastic), Thyroid, Testes, Lung (Lytic), Kidney.
Selective β2-agonists
MAST: Metaproterenol and Albuterol for acute asthma; Salmeterol for long-term treatment; Terbutaline to reduce premature uterine contractions
β1-selective antagonists
A BEAM: Acebutolol, Betaxolol, Esmolol, Atenolol, Metoprolol
Specific antidotes: Acetaminophen
Specific antidotes: Salicylates
NaHCO3 (alkalinize urine), dialysis
Specific antidotes: Amphetamines (basic)
NH4Cl (acidify urine)
Specific antidotes: Anticholinesterases, organophosphates
Atropine, pralidoxime
Specific antidotes: Antimuscarinic, anticholinergic agents
Physostigmine salicylate
Specific antidotes: β-blockers
Specific antidotes: Digitalis
Stop dig, normalize K+, lidocaine, anti-dig Fab fragments, Mg2+
Specific antidotes: Iron
Specific antidotes: Lead
CaEDTA, dimercaprol, succimer, penicillamine
Specific antidotes: Arsenic, mercury, gold
Dimercaprol (BAL), succimer
Specific antidotes: Copper, arsenic, gold
Specific antidotes: Cyanide
Nitrite, hydroxocobalamin, thiosulfate
Specific antidotes: Methemoglobin
Methylene blue
Specific antidotes: Carbon monoxide
100% O2, hyperbaric O2
Specific antidotes: Methanol, ethylene glycol (antifreeze)
Ethanol, dialysis, fomepizole
Specific antidotes: Opioids
Specific antidotes: Benzodiazepines
Specific antidotes: TCAs
NaHCO3 (serum alkalinization)
Specific antidotes: Heparin
Specific antidotes: Warfarin
Vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma
Specific antidotes: tPA, streptokinase
Aminocaproic acid
Drug reactions: Cutaneous flushing
VANC: Vancomycin, Adenosine, Niacin. Ca+ channel blockers
Drug reactions: Hemolysis in G6PD-decicient patients
hemolysis IS PAIN: Isoniazid (INH), Sulfonamides, Primaquine, Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Nitrofurantoin
Drug reactions: Megaloblastic anemia
PMS: Phenytoin, Methotrexate, Sulfa drugs
Drug reactions: Pulmonary fibrosis
Bleomycin, amiodarone, busulfan
Drug reactions: Gynecomastia
Spironolactone, Digitalis, Cimetidine, chronic Alcohol use, estrogens, Ketoconazole. (Some Drugs Create Awesome Knockers)
Drug reactions: Photosensitivity
SAT for a photo: Sulfonamides, Amiodarone, Tetracycline
Drug reactions: SLE-like syndrome
Hydralazine, INH, Procainamide, Phenytoin (it’s not HIPP to have lupus)
P-450 Inducers
Quinidine, Barbiturates, St, John's wort, Phenytoin, Rifampin, Griseofulvin, Carbamazepine, Chronic alcohol use
P-450 Inhibitors
Sulfonamides, Isoniazid, Cimetidine, Ketoconazole, Erythromycin, Grapefruit juice, Acute alcohol use
Sulfa drugs
celecoxib, furosemide, thiazides, TMP-SMX, sulfonyureas, sulfasalazine.
cAMP inducers
C- cholera activates Gs
A- anthrax's EF is adenylate cyclase
(sigma) - ETEC heat labile toxin increases Gs
P - pertussis inhibits Gi
Obligate aerobes
Nagging Pests Must Breathe.
Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Mtb, Bacillus
Obligate anerobes
Cant Breathe Air
Clostridium, Bacteriodes, Actinomyces
Obligate Intracellular
Clamydia, Rickketsiae
Facultative intracellular
Some Nasty Bugs May Live FacultativeLY
Salmonella, neisseria, brucella, Mtb, Legionella, Francisella, Listeria, Yersinia
Encapsulated bacteria
Kapsules Shield SHiN
Klebsiella, Salmonella, Strep Pneumo, Hemophilus influenza, Neisseria meningitidis.

SHiN have IgA protease.
Urease Positive
Particular Kinds Have Urease
Proteus, Klebsiella, H. pylori, Ureaplasma
Toxins from Lysogenic phages
ShigA-like toxin, Botulinum, Cholera-like toxin, Diphtheria, erythrogenic toxin of Strep Pyogenes.

(3 are gram+, the other 2 are e-coli related)
What is optochin sensitive?
OVRPS - strep viridians, resistant, pneumoniae is sensitive
What is novobiocin sensitive?
NO StRES in our staff.
Saprophyticus resistant, Epidermidis sensitive.
What is bacitracin sensitive?
Strep B resistant, Strep A senstive
Strep pneumoniae - infections
Meningitis, Otitis media, Pneumonia, Sinusitis
It's Most OPtochin Sensitive.
Rhematic Fever
Strep PHaryngitis causes rheumatic PHever. No rheum for SPECCulation. Subcutaneous plaques, polyarthralgias, erythema marginatum, Chorea, carditis
Diptheria mnemonic
ADP ribosolyation, Beta prophage, Corynebacterium, Diptheriae, Elongation Factor-2, Granules (red+blue)
C. perfringens' toxin
lecithinase is a phospholipase that causes myonecrosis (gas gangrene) and hemolysis
Actinomyces vs nocardia - drugs
Sulfa for nocardia (acid fast), Actinomyces (gram+) gets penicillin.
Lactose fermenters
Lactose is KEE, put em on maConKEE's agar. Citrobacter, klebsiella, ecoli, enterobacter.
H. influenzae - what infections?
hEMOPhilus - epiglottitis, meningitis, otitis, pneumonia.
H. influenzae - culture?
Go to the 5 and dime to get chocolate. V - NAD, X - protoporphrin, chocolate agar.
pneumonia, sepsis, external otitis, UTI, drug users and diabetic osteomyelitis.
Macrolides - what bugs?
Nice Chicks Like My Mack
Neisseria, Chlamydia, Legionella, Mycoplasma
Treatment for nonseptic salmonella / yersinia infections.
Nothing, because SINiA thinks SALMON is delicious.
Klebsiella mnemonic
Aspiration pneumonia, alcoholics, abscess in lung, di-A-betics
Enterobacteriaceae family
COFFEe - capsular (K), o antigen (polysaccharide of endotoxin), flagellar antigen (H, only motile species), ferments glucose, enterbacteriae
y. pestis tx
AG or doxycycline
h. pylori tx
treat so you can eat a BMT, or go to COMET burger.
1. bismuth, metronidazole, tetracycline (or amox)
2. clarithromycin, omeprazole, metronidazole.
Spirochete size
BLT - B is big, can be seen w/ wright or giemsa (aniline) stains.
Lyme dz
BAKE a key Lyme pie.
bell's palsy, arthritis, kardiac block, erythema migrans
Yaws mnemonic
Treponemes make me YAWn during SBJ. Yaws is caused by treponema pertenue, causes skin bone and joint problems, limb deformities.
sjogren's triad and antibodies
nazi SS using AXX. SS-A (ro) and SS-B (la). Arthralgias, xeropthalmos, xerostomia.
sarcoidosis mnemonic
gettin BRAIN from a hot black chick, G. bell's palsy, rheumatoid arthritis, ACE and vitD excess from mphages, interstitial fibrosis, noncaseating granulomas, gammaglobulinemia
bone tumor location
GE's cow says MOO, DOES ICE.
Giant cell in Epiphysis, Metaphysis has Osteosarcoma, Osteochonstroma, Diaphysis has Osteoid osteoma and Ewings Sarcoma, Intermedullary area has Chondrosarcoma and Enchondroma
Psammoma bodies mnemonic

papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid, Endometrial papillary serous cancer, Meningioma, Mesothelioma, Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of ovary.
Find The Antibody, ABSolutely. Specific for treponemes, turns positive earliest and remains positive longest, even after successful treatment after VDRL drops.
VDRL - what does it detect?
Nonspecific antibody that reacts with beef cardiolipin. Used for syphilis dx, but has many falses positives like mono, hepatitis, drugs, rheumatic fever, SLE and leprosy.
zoonotic bugs mnemonic
Big Bad Bugs From Your Pet Named Ella.
Brucella (dairy, undulant fever/brucellosis), bartonella (cat scratch, angiomatosis), borrelia burdorferi (tick bite Ixodes--deer), Francisella (ticks--rabbits, deer), Yersinia (fleas--rodents, prairie dogs), Pasteurella (animal bites--cats, dogs)
Gardnerella vaginalis
No CLUE why i smell FISH in the vagina garden.
Rickettsiae triad
Hurting From Rickettsiae - Headache, Fever, Rash

needs CoA and NAD for culture.
ePidemic Typhus
r. ProWARzeki - Pro war, dirtiness everywhere results in lice infestation and ePidemic (from flying squirrel).
Endemic Typhus
r. typhi comes from rat flea, no outbreaks
rocky mountain spotted fever vs typhus rash
Rickettsia on the wRists, Typhys on the Trunk.
Ricketssia ricketsii starts on hands and feet, typhus starts centrally and spreads outward w/o involving palms and soles.
Q fever, why so queer?
no rash, no vector, negative Weil-Felix , can survive outside cell for a long time. no ricketsia in name.
weil-felix rx
mix proteus ag w/ pts blood and get agglutination w/ ricketssial infections.
Rashes on palms and soles
Drive CARS w/ your palms and soles. Coxsackie A (hand foot and mouth), Rocky mtn spotted fever, Syphilis.
Chlamydia - two forms
Elementary body Enters cell via Endocytosis. Reticular body (aka intial body) Replicates in cell by fission. Stay in endosome and block fusion.
Clamydia trachomatis serotypes
ABC - Africa, Blindness, Chronic infection.
D-K (main kind spread by dick) - urethritis, PID, ectopic pregnancy, neonatal pneumonia and conjunctivitis.
L1,L2,L3- lymphogranuloma venereum
endocrine signaling pathways: cAMP

also calcitonin, GHRH, Glucagon
endocrine signaling pathways: cGMP
ANP, NO(edrf)
endocrine signaling pathways: IP3
GnRH, Oxytocin, ADH (V1), TRH
endocrine signaling pathways: steroid receptor
VET CAP (cytosolic)
VitD, Estrogen, Testosterone, Cortisol, Aldosterone, Progesterone
T3/T4 are nuclear.
endocrine signaling pathways: intrinsic tyrosine kinase (MAPK)
Growth factors:
Insulin, IGF-1, FGF, PDGF
endocrine signaling pathways: receptor associated tyrosine kinase (JAK/STAT)
the GIPper was JAKKED
GH, IL2, prolactin
Nematodes route of infection
ingested - Enterobius vermiularis, Ascaris lubricoides, Trichinella spiralis

cutaneous - Strongyloides stercoralis, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus

all are bendy bugs, treated with bendy drugs. also EA - pyrantel pamoate, S - ivermectin
Oncocerca volvulus
causes hyperpigmented skin and river blindness, black flies, black skin nodules, black sight.

treat with rIVERmectin
Loa loa, wucheria bancrofti, toxocara canis tx
teniae solium tx
cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis, tx w/ praziquantel, bendy drugs for neurocysticercosis.
diphyllobothrium latum
from sushi, causes b12 deficiency (anemia and neuropathy). tx w/ praziquantel
echinococcus granulosus
from eating dog shit, anaphyaxis from liver cyst rupture. tx w/ bendy drugs
from snails, penetrate skin and cause granulomas, fibrosis, liver and spleen inflammation.

hematobium causes scca of bladder
clonorchis sinensis
liver fluke from undercooked fish, biliary inflammation - pigmented gallstones, risk of cholangiocarcinoma
paragonium westermani
hemoptysis from inflamm. and bacterial infection in lung, from undercooked crab meat.
parasite hints: brain cysts, seizures
taenia solium

tx: praziquantel + bendy (for neurocysticercosis)
parasite hints: liver cysts
echinococcus granulosus

tx: bendy drugs
parasite hints: b12 deficiency
diphyllobothrium latum

tx: praziquantel
parasite hints: biliary tract disease, cholangiocarcinoma
clonorchis sinensis

tx: praziquantel
parasite hints: hemoptysis
paragonimus westernmani

tx: praziquantel
parasite hints: portal hypertension
schistosoma mansoni

tx: praziquantel
parasite hints: hematuria, bladder cancer
schistosoma hematobium

tx: praziquantel
parasite hints: microcytic anemia
ancylostoma duodenale, necator. absorb Fe from duodenum.

tx: bendy drugs or pyrantel pamoate
parasite hints: perianal pruritis
enterobius vermicularis

tx: bendy drugs or pyrantel pamoate
Which vaccines are live attenuated?
"Live, one night only, see Small Yellow Chickens get vaccinated w/ Sabin's and MMR"

smallpox, yellow fever, chickenpox (vzv), sabin's polio, MMR
Which vaccines are killed?
Rabies, influenza, salk Polio, hAv.

RIP Always.
Which vaccines are recombinant?
HBV (antigen is recombinant HBsAg), HPV 6,11,16,18
DNA viruses mnemonic
hepadna, herpes, adeno, papova, pox, parvo.
all are linear except papova and hepadna.
all are double stranded except parvo (part-of-a-virus)
RNA viruses - ss or ds?
all are ss except Reovirus aka repeatovirus
Naked viral genomes. Which ones are infective?
Most naked dsDNA and + RNA are infective. Naked - RNA and dsRNA are not infective, require enzymes.
Which virus is diploid?
All are haploid except retroviruses which have two copies of same genome.
Which viruses are naked?
Naked CPR and PAPP
Calici, picorna, reo - RNA naked
parvo, adeno, papilloma and polyoma - DNA naked
DNA and RNA viruses, where do they replicate?
all DNA viruses replicate in nucleus except Pox, all RNA viruses replicate in cytoplasm except influenza and retrovirus.
Where do viruses obtain envelopes?
all obtain envelope when leaving cytoplasm, except for herpes which acquires it when leaving nucleus.
DNA viruses, which are icosahedral?
all except pox (complex)
treat w/ acyclovir - mnemonic
get herpes in a CHEVy. CMV, HSV, EBV, VZV. all but CMV treated with acyclovir (use gancyclovir instead, or foscarnet)
arboviruses mnemonic
Fevers Transmitted by Bites
flavivirus - yellow fever, stl encephalitis, dengue, west nile
toga - e. + w. equine
paramyxovirus mnemonic
parainfluenza, RSV, measles, mumps
parainfluenza vs rsv
parainfluenza causes croup, laryngotracheobronchiolitis, barking seal cough, resp distress, leading cause of hospitalizations, steeple sign

RSV causes croup - high pitch cough, asthma, in the winter rx: ribavirin, palavizumab, albuterol
Right Out the Anus - infantile gastroenteritis outbreaks in daycare centers, more in the winter
yellow fever
high fever, black vomitus, jaundice. councilman bodies in liver
rubeola vs rubella vs roseola
rubeola - measles, koplik spots in mouth, rash spreads from head to toe, may cause encephalitis (SSPE) years later. 3Cs+K, paramyxovirus

rubella - 3 day german measles, fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias and fine truncal rash. TORCH infenction, toga.

roseola - isolated fever for several days that may result in seizures, fine truncal rash. HHV6
HBV serology:

HBsAg +
HBsAb -
HBcAb +
Acute disease
HBV serology:

HBsAg -
HBsAb -
HBcAb +
Window phase

All HBsAg is bound to HBsAb, so only HBcAb is detectable.
HBV serology:

HBsAg -
HBsAb +
HBcAb +
Complete recovery

You had HBV, so C antibody is present.
HBV serology:

HBsAg +
HBsAb -
HBcAb +
Chronic carrier

You have no HBsAb, but HBsAg and HBcAb are there.
HBV serology:

HBsAg -
HBsAb +
HBcAb -

Never had HBV, no C antibody.
CD4 count <400

oral thrush, reactivation VZV, reactivation TB, bacterial infections
CD4 count <200

infections + prophylaxis?
PCP, reactivation HSV, cryptosporidium, disseminated ciccidiomycosis

start prophylaxis: TMP / SMX or dapsone for PCP
CD4 count <100

infections + prophylaxis?
toxoplasma, candida esophagitis, histoplasma

start prophylaxis - azithromycin for mai prevention
CD4 count <50

infections + prophylaxis?
CMV retinitis / esophagitis, disseminated MAI, cryptococcal meningitis

start prophylaxis - fluconazole for cryptococcus
pneumonia in neonates (<4w): bugs and tx
ESL, e.coli, strep B and listeria

tx: ampicillin + gentamicin
pneumonia in children (4w-18y): bugs and tx
viruses (RSV), mycoplasma, chlamydia pneumoniae, strep pneumoniae

(Runts May Cough Sputum)

tx:macrolide + cephalosporin
pneumonia in adults (18-40): bugs and tx
mycoplasma, C. pneumoniae, S. pneumoniae

tx:macrolide + cephalosporin
pneumonia in adults (40-65): bugs and tx
S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, anerobes, viruses, mycoplasma

tx: cephalosporins + clindamycin
pneumonia in elderly: bugs and tx
S. pneumoniae, viruses, anerobes, h. influenzae, gram - rods

tx: gentamicin or imipenem/cilastatin or meropenem
bacterial vs fungal/tb meningitis : csf findings
both have increase P, increase WBC, increase Protein and decreased sugar. bacteria have PMN, myco / fungi have lymphocytes.

Viruses have normal everything except elevated lymphocytes.
ToRCHeS: congenital toxoplasma classic triad
chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications
ToRCHeS: congenital rubella classic triad
PDA (or pulm artery hypoplasia), cataracts, deafness +/- blueberry muffin rash
ToRCHeS: congenital CMV
hearing loss, seizures, microcephaly, intracranial calcifications, chorioretinitis
ToRCHeS: congenital HIV
recurrent infections, chronic diarrhea
ToRCHeS: congetal HSV
temporal encephalitis, herpetic lesions
ToRCHeS: congetal syphilis
stillbirth, hydrops fetalis. if child survives, facial abnormalities like notched teeth, saddle nose, short maxilla, saber shins
ToRCHeS: congenital Parvovirus B19
hydrops fetalis in pregnant women
ToRCHeS: congenital Parvovirus B19
hydrops fetalis in pregnant women
bugs commonly affecting CGD patients
Catalase + bugs: s. aureus + SPAN, serratia, pseudomonas, aspergillus, nocardia