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27 Cards in this Set

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S Scale
Superlative Self Presentation Scale - developed 1995
Purpose of S Scale?
Assess the tendency of some to present themselves as highly virtuous, responsible individuals who are free of problelms, have few or no moral flaws, and get along very well with others
When is the S Scale especially useful?
child custody evaluations, and personnel selection
Cutoffs for the S Scale, and suggested attributes?
T = 70 or more
defensive. test may be invalid. In clinical setting, probably should not use the protocol; in nonclinical can use the 70 to 74 protocol, but issues may be underrepresented. High score may also mean nonacquiescent response set (look at TRIN to see if this is true; if TRIN is above 80, person probably answered randomly)
T below 70 - person not defensive. Not enough research to validate looking at very low scores.
F - K Index
- use raw scores
- used to detect fake bad profile: 9 or more means fake bad
- F scale alone considered more useful for this purpose though
- Can use for "fake good" profile, but L and K more reliable
Cannot Say Score
Manual says 30 or more omitted is invalid, but this is an old number. Michaels says 3 or 4 (?) s/b max omitted
VRIN - what does it stand for and how is it scored?
Variable Response Inconsistency Scale - gives indication of a tendency to respond inconsistently to 67 pairs of items that have similar or opposite content.
VRIN - random response T score? All T score? All F score? Fake bad?
Random gives 96 for men and 98 for women. All T or All F gives about a 50. Fake bad as well as honestly admitting psychopathology will have avg T score
VRIN cutoff score?
manual suggests 13 or greater raw score (= T of 80 or more) suggests inconsisstent responding that invalidates the protocol
Why might a person respond inconsistently and so get an elevated TRIN score?
not reading carefully, not able to read well enough, responding randomly
TRIN - name, purpose and content of scale
True Response Inconsistency Scale identifies inconsistent responses to 20 opposite content pairs by either giving T or F indiscriminately
TRIN Cutoff scores and meaning?
TRIN of 6 to 12 (inclusive) raw scores show consistent responding.
raw score TRIN of 13+ acquiescent set (too much T)
raw score TRIN of 5 or less nonacquiescent set (too much F)
When converted to T scores, these will give a T of 80 or more, and computer will put T or F after to indicate which response was prevalent
F scale - name, purpose and content
Infrequency Scale to detect deviant or atypical ways of responding to test items. Uses 64 items that were answered in the scored direction by fewer than 10% of the normed pop. Initially meant to address random responding, but it also gives some info about psychopathology
F scale cut offs?
-use different cutoffs in inpatient/outpatient and nonclinical settings, with higher numbers necessary for more seriously disturbed populations

Very high (100+,90+,80+): random or all T response, fake bad, or pathology
High (80+, 70+, 65+): all F response, fake bad, cry for help, or pathology
Moderate (55+, 55+, 40+): valid. Some may have deviant beliefs or be accurately reporting MH problems
Low (<54, <54, <39): denial or minimizing problems, fake good
Fb - purpose and cut off
Back Infrequency Scale - F Scale Items that are last part of test. Can't use supplementary or content scales if this is elevated.
High is 110+ is clinical and 90+ in nonclinical OR F - Fb > 30 T points.
Interpret T>80 with caution.
Fp - purpose and cut off
Infrequency Psychopathology Scale used to identify Fake Bad profile in settings with HIGH rate of pathology. cutoff is T of about 95 or higher, or RAW > 7. High scorers are endorsing items that are infrequently endorsed by ALL populations
L - content, purpose
Lie Scale detects deliberate and unsophisticated attempts to present self in unrealistically favorable light. 15 items were rationally derived. useful in nonclinical settings (personnel selection, child custody evaluations)
L - cutoffs and meaning
These cutoffs are for all settings unless indicated differently.
VERY HIGH (80+): fake good, or pervasive nonacquiescence renders protocol invalid.
HIGH (65 - 79 clinical and 70 to 79 nonclin): Trying to appear very virtuous - be very cautious about interpreting it
Moderate (65 - 69 nonclinical): overly positive self-presentation. Can interpret the protocol but must take defensiveness into account.
Elevated (60 - 64): unsophisticated defensiveness. profile valid. Take defensiveness into account
Average (50 - 59): valid protocol
Low (<50): may indicate exageration or malingering of psychopathology. May be result of all T response bias.
K - content, purpose
Correction Scale - more subtle index of attempts to fake bad/be defensive. 30 items empirically derived from comparing responses of clearly disturbed people who had "normal" profiles with those of normal people. Better educated people score higher
K - cutoffs and meaning
High (65 or more): more defensive than the average person. the higher the score, the more likely s/he is defensive. In clinical setting, suggests fake good that could invalidate the profile.Could also be a F response test bias
Average (40 - 64): balanced self-view
Low (<40): Fake bad, or T response set bias (compare to TRIN)
What does a Random Responding set look like?
VRIN most useful - invalid if 80 or more
F,Fb and Fp >100
K, S = 50
L between 60 and 70
Clinical scales (not 5 & 0)all > 70 with 8 then 6 the highest
what does an all-true response set look like?
TRIN > 80
F scores >100
L, K & S < 50
psychotic scales very high
what does an all-false response set look like?
TRIN > 80
L F K S Fp > 70
Neurotic scales elevated
Fb and VRIN - 50
What does a Fake Bad (negative self-presentation) profile look like? (aka malingering)
F, Fb, Fp >100 - most useful indicator
VRIN, TRIN normal
clinical scales >80
what invalidates a profile?
cannot say >30
VRING or TRIN 80 or more
F and Fb >80 - consider Sx exageration
Fp: 100+ malingering - invalid
80 - 99 possible malingering - caution
79 - 70 interpret cautiously, malingering not ruled out
<70 protocol valid
what does a Fake Good (positive self-presentation) profile look like?
L, K, S significant elevation
F, Fb, Fp - average or below
harder to detect than fake bad
L-F-K will be a V-shape

can also loook at Positive Malingering (Mp) if reported
What does a defensive profile look like?
L, K & S more elevated (60 - 70)than the F scales, but not as much as in a fake good set (70+). If clinical scales elevated because of K, don't necessarily interpret
SOMETIMES either L or K is elevated - they measure different aspects. K - denies Sx and problesm. L - trying to seem honest, moral & conforming