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33 Cards in this Set

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What does procaryotic mean?
-simple cells
-has nuclear region but no true memrane around a nucleus
-no internal cell organization but have complex metabolic pathways
-smaller than eucaryotic cells
What does eucaryotic mean?
-more complex cells that represent the basic structural units of plants, animals, fungi, protozoans, and algae.
-have membrane bound organelles
-has true nucleus
What does autotrophic mean?
-organisms obtain carbon from inorganic material
-self-fedders that can be pro or eucaryotic
*can also be phototrophic
What does phototrophic mean?
-use light as an energy source
-ex; anabaena, volvox, and euglena
What does heterotrophic mean?
obatin carbon from organic sources such as carbs, fats, proteins, or other corganisms
-can be pro or eucaryotic
-ex; amoeba, paramecium, lactobacillus, trypanosoma, staphylococcus
What does saprophytic mean?
-organisms get carbon from living off the dead, decayhing organic matter like wood and animals
*considered a specialized heterotroph
*includes most fungi
What does flagellate mean?
-organisms have many flagella
-mostly protozoans
-ex; Trypanosoma, euglena, volvox
What does ciliate mean?
-protozoans with cilia that cover the whole surface
-ex; paramecium
What is cytoplasmic streaming?
-movement of cytoplasm to form a pseudopod which moves a protozan such as an amoeba
What is a pseudopod?
-a false foot that is caused by cytoplasmic streaming which pulls organism behind it
-slowest form of movement known as amoeboid movement
What are the four criteria used to describe different groups of microbes?
1) cell structure
2) nutrition
3) mode of propulsion
4) size in microns
Name a photosynthetic procaryote
-photosynthetic eucaryote
-procaryotic flagellate
-eucaryotic flagellate
-eucaryotic ciliate
-eucaryotic amoeboid microbe
-Anabaena
-euglena, volvox
-Rhodospirillum rubrum, Bacillus subtilis
-Trypanosoma, euglena, volvox
-Paramecium
-Amoeba
When measuring an organism in microns, what objectives are multiplied by certain numbers?
-4x= 25
-10x= 10
-40x= 2.5
=100x= 1
What are the three major morphological groups of bacteria studied in excerise 1?
-bacillus
-cocci
-spirilla
Describe cyanobacteria
-procaryotes
-photosynthetic bacteria
-can fix atmospheric nitrogen into usable forms
-often found in barren places where other plant life can't exist
What speciallized cells are used by cyancobacteria to fix nitrogen?
-heterocysts
How are protozoans most commonly classified by?
-mobility
What is the difference between mold and yeast?
-yeast is unicellular, smaller than mold (only slightly larger than bacteria)
-mold is multicellular and use hypha to form mycelium
Which algae are found as single cells?
How about in colonies?
-Euglena
-Volvox
What is a lichen?
-algae living in a symbiotic relationship with members of the fungal class, Ascomycotina
-occurs commonly in nature on rocks, tree bark, and arctic tundra
How are algal blooms controlled?
-by the use of copper sulfate added to the water
In experiment 1, describe Bacillus subtilis.
-Gr +
-bacilli in straight chains
-3 x .5 microns
-heterotrophic? flagella
In experiment 1, describe Lactobacillus plantarum
-Gr +
-bacilli in webbed chains
-2-3 x .5 microns
-heterotrophic (don't know movement)
In experiment 1, describe Rhodospirillum rubrum?
-Gr -
-spirilla by itself
-5 x .5 microns
-hetero? flagella
In experiment 1, describe Staphylococcus aureus.
-Gr +
-cocci in singles
-1 micron
-hetero
-nonmotile
In experiment 1, describe Anabaena.
prokaryotic
-Blue and Red colors
-cocci in pearl-like strands
-4 microns
-phototrophic
-unknown movement (none?)
In experiment 1, describe Trypanosoma.
-Eukaryote stains blue
-crescent shaped in RBC's
-11 x 1.5 microns
-heterotroph
-flagella
In experiment 1, describe Paramecium.
-eukaryote stains blue
-oval microorganism
-200 x 50 microns
-heterotrophic
-cilliate
In experiment 1, describe Amoeba.
-Blue and Red
-Blobs
-120 x 100 microns
-heterotrophic
-pseudopod
In experiment 1, describe Candida.
-Eukaryote stains dark blue
-swiss cheese look
-3 x 3 microns
-saprophytic
-nonmotile
In experiment 1, describe Euglena.
-pink with blue nucleua
-like a mini paramecium
-37 x 10 microns
-phototrophic
-flagella
In experiment 1, describe Volvox.
-eukaryote stains blue
-round (like cocci) in colonies (250 microns)
-phototrophic
-flagella
-5 microns
How do you calculate resolution?
wavelength/(NA of objecive + NA of condenser)