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31 Cards in this Set

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What is Epidemiology?
- The study of occurrence, distribution and control of infectious disease in populations
What are aspects of Epidemiology?
- Terminology
- disease reservoirs and carriers
- disease transmission
- AIDS and nosocomial epidemiology
- public health
What is Descriptive Epidemiology?
- Careful tabulation of data concerning a disease
- Record info about location and time of cases
- Collect patient information
- Try to identify the index case (first case) of the disease
What is Analytical Epidemiology?
- Seeks to determine the probable cause, mode of transmission, and methods of prevention
- Useful when Koch's postulates can't be applied
- Often retrospective-investigation occurs after the outbreak
What is Experimental Epidemiology?
- Involves testing a hypothesis concerning the cause of a disease
- Application of Koch's postulates is experimental epidemiology
What are the three main types of disease occurrance?
- Endemic

- Epidemic

- Pandemic
What is an Endemic disease?
- Disease always present in a population, usually at low incidence, such as STDs.
What is an Epidemic disease?
- When many people in a given area contract a disease within a relatively short time
What is a Pandemic disease?
- a widely distributed epidemic; could occur around the world at the same time
Define "Incidence" in Epidemiologic terms
- number of new cases of a disease in a given area during a given time period
Define "Prevalence" in Epidemiologic terms
- number of total cases of a disease in a given area during a given period of time
What is an Etiological Agent?

Define "Mortality"

Define "Morbidity"
+ The organism responsible for the disease

+ Mortality - incidence of death in a population

+ Morbidity - incidence of disease, fatal or non-fatal, in a population
What are the stages of disease progression?
- incubation period
- prodromal period - initial symptoms
- illness (acute) period
- decline period
- convalescent period
What is a Reservoir?
- site where pathogens are maintained as a source of infection
- Animal reservoir
- Human carrier
- Non-living reservoir
- contaminated soil, water, food
What are modes of disease transmission?
- Contact Transmission

- Vehicle transmission

- Vector Transmission
What diseases are transmitted by Contact Transmission?
- Direct Contact: handshake, kiss, sex
- STDs, staph, cutaneous anthrax

- Indirect Contact: drinking glass, sneeze, coughing
- colds, flu, pneumonia, tetanus, whooping cough
What diseases are transmitted by Vehicle Transmission?
- Airborne: dust particles
- chicken pox, histoplasmosis, flu, TB
- Waterborne: swimming pools
- cholera, diarrhea, etc
- Foodborne: poultry, seafood
- botulism, staph, hepatitis A, listeriosis, toxoplasmosis
What diseases are transmitted by Vector Transmission?
- Mechanical: insect bite, flies
- diarrhea, salmonella, etc
- Biological: lice, mosquitoes
- Lyme disease, malaria, plague, typhus, yellow fever
What are microbe disease mechanisms?
- Growth of the microbe in an inappropriate place

- Production of toxic substances (i.e. exotoxins)
What are disease transmission factors to consider when looking at incidences?
- geographical
- suggests a vector (mosquito)
- seasonal
- flu and colds spike during school/winter
- age group
What is a common-source epidemic?
- infection of a large number of people from contaminated common source
- usually food or water
What is a host-to-host epidemic?
- relative slow, progressive rise in incidence; due to host-to-host transmission and longer incubation times
What are some factors effecting disease occurrance?
- Virulence of pathogen
- Genetic background
- State of host immune system
- Acquired/Adaptive immunity
- Herd immunity
- Cultural/Public Health Standards
What is Herd Immunity?
- Example: When about 70% of a population is resistance, essentially ALL are resistant. Resistant individuals form a transmission barrier;
- That's how smallpox was eliminated
What are Nosocomial diseases?
- Hospital-acquired diseases
- 5-10% of patients;
- 80,000 deaths/year
- immunity and exposure
- rise of resistant microbes
What is the fastest growing category for new AIDS cases?
- heterosexual adults
How can disease reservoirs be controlled?
- Domestic Animal: immunization or destruction
- Wild Animal: immunization or eradication
- Insect: chemical pesticides or biological control
- Human: immunization; quarantine
How can transmission be prevented?
- food protection laws
- respiratory: masks
- washing hands, etc
How long to Quarantines need to be maintained?
- Time limit is the longest period communicability of disease
- Used for serious diseases:
- smallpox, cholera, plague, yellow fever, typhoid fever, relapsing fever
How is Eradication accomplished?
- combination of vaccination, quarantine, and surveillance
- smallpox is the only disease we have been able to eradicate so far
What is Surveillance?
- observation, recognition, reporting of diseases
- provides forewarning