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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are some applications where industrial microbiology is used?
-industrial products
-food microbiology (fermentations)
-treatment of water and wastewaters
-disposal and cleanup of biological wastes
-treatment of mine drainage
What is Industrial production?
-large-scale growth of particular microbes for producing some type of beneficial compound such as AA or vit
What are primary metabolites?
-produced during active growth and metabolism
-either required for the production of new organisms or are by-products of active metabolism
What are secondary metabolites?
-produced after cells have left log phase of growth and have entered the stationary phase
-substabces are not immediately needed for growth
In industrial microbiology, what are products prosduced as?
-primary metabolites by the organism
-secondary metabolites by the organism
What do recombinant organisms add to the chemicals produced by bacteria during their metabolic activities?
-add diversity by producing substances not normally manufactured by microbial cells
What are some advantages offered by microbial processes?
-use renewable resources
-environmentally benign
-synthesis of compounds too complex for exonomic chemical synthesis (ie: chiral synthesis, enantiomerically-pure chemicals)
What are some enzymes produced by microorganisms and their uses?
-amylase and proteases: spot removers
-streptokinase: breakdown of blood clots
-restriction enzymes, ligases, polymerases: molecular biology/reasearch
What are some food additives/supplements produced by microorganisms and their uses?
-amino acids, vitamins: health supplements
-citric acid: antioxidant
-sorbic acid: food preservative
What are some industrial products produced by microoorganims and their uses?
-Indigo: dye used in manufacturing clothes
-Plastics: biodegradable substances for petroleium-based plastics
What are some alternative fuels produced by microorganisms and their uses?
-ethanol: used in gasoline
-methane: burned to generate heat and electricity
-Hydrogen, hydrocarbons: potential fuels
What are some pharmaceuticals produced by microorganisms and their uses?
-antimicrobial drugs: tx of bacterial infections
-insulin, human growth hormone: replacement hormones
-taxol: cancer treatment
+Bt toxin: insecticide
What makes Vitamin B12?
-Propionibacterium, Pseudomonas strains
What makes Vitamin B2?
AKA riboflavin
-made by Ashbya gossypii at 7g/L
What are 6 properties of a useful industrial microorganism?
-makes a valuable product
-grows and performs well in large-scale cultures
-fast growth and production
-grows in inexpensive media (corn steep liquor, whey)
-non pathogenic
-amenable to genetic manipulation, genetically stable
What are some attributes food receives from fermentation?
What is fermentation in food microbiology?
-any desirable changes that occur to a food or beverage as result of microbial growth
Which products are best known for natural microbial populations capable of fermentative metabolism?
What is a starter culture in food microbiology?
-composed of known microorganisms that perform specific fermentations consistently
What are some fermented vegetables and what do they make?
-cabbage: sauerkraut/kimchi
-cucumbers, peppers, beets: pickles
-soybeans and wheat: soy sauce
-Rice and soybeans: Miso
What is alcoholic fermentation?
-various species (predominantly yeasts) convert simple sugars into alcohol (ethanol) and CO2
What are some intrinsic factors that can cause food spoilage?
-nutritional composition
-water activity
-physical structure
-microbial competition
What are some extrinsic factors that can affect food spoilage?
-degree of processing
-amount of preservatives
-storage temperature
-storage packaging
What are perishable foods?
-often nutrient rich
-unprotected by rinds or coverings
-kept cold
What are semi-perishables?
-can be stored in sealed containers for months without spoiling if unopened
-many fermented foods are semi-perishable
What are non-parishable foods?
-dry or canned foods that can be stored alomst indefinitely w/o spoiling
-often are nutrient poor, dried, fermented, preserved
What are 6 ways of preventing food spoilage?
-industrial canning
-lyophilization (freeze drying)
-gamma radiation
-high and low temps
What are some different types of preservatives?
-salt and sugar remove water from food
-garlic contains allicin which inhibits enzyme function
-benzoic acid interferes with enzymatic function
-certain spices produce oils that interfere with membranes
-chemical preservatives may inhibit microbial growth but don't kill microbes
What does industrial canning do to prevent food spoilage?
-heating eliminats meophilic bacteria and endospores
-hyperthermophilic microbes remain but can't grow at room temperature
What does pasteurization do for food spoilage?
-lowers number of microbes but some microbes survive
-used most with delicate foods and beverages
What does freeze drying do to preven food spoilage?
-foods are frozen and then a vacuum draws off the ice crystals
What does gamma radiation do to prevent food spoilage?
-can penetrate food and damage the DNA of microbes
-can achieve complete sterilization
What two groups can food-poisoning be broken into?
1) food infections
2) food intoxications
What is food infection?
-result from the consumption of living microorganisms
What is food intoxications?
-caused by consumption of microbial toxins rather than the microbe itself
What are the steps in water treatment?
-sedimentation and flocculation to remove large materials
-filtration using sand, activated charcoal, or membrane filtration to remove microbes
-disinfection using chlorine, ozone, or UV light to inactivate remaining microbes
How is the majority of water-borne illnesses spread and caused by?
-fecally contaminated water
How is water quality testing often done?
-uses the presence of certain indicator organisms to indicate the possible presence of pathogens in drinking water or natural aquatic systems
What to bacterium often indicate other pathogens may be present?
-E coli
-fecal coliforms
Why is E. coli a good indicator organism?
-consistently found in human waste
-survives in water as long as most pathogens
-easily detected by simple tests such as membrane filtration, ONPG, and MUG tests
What is membrane filtration?
-plating of a sample and counting colonies
What is the purpose of wastewater treatement?
-to remove or reduce contaminants and microorganisms to acceptable levels
-reduce the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
What is BOD?
-biological oxygen demand
-a measure of the amount of oxygen that aerobic bacteria require to metabolize wastes in water
What are the three components to domestic wastewater?
What are the requirements for effluent to be released to environment?
-BOD < or equal to 20mg/L
-N < or equal to 18mg/L
-E coli <equal to 10mg/L
What are three different types of municipal wastewater treatment facilities?
What are nonmunicipal wastewater treatment?
-septic tanks and cesspools
What happens to sludge in municipal treatments?
How about nonmunicipal
-anaeorobically digested and then:
-dried for lanfill or ag
-and methane burned off or trapped for fuel
+sludge stays in tank and must be eventually pumped out
In a complex exosystem, what bacteria is most interactive with activated sludge?
-Gr + Actinomycetes