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44 Cards in this Set

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catalase-postive, gram-positve cocci
Staphylococcus and Micrococcus
most virulent staphylococci encountered
Staph aureus
UTI coagulase-negative staphylococci. how differentiated from other CNS?
Stapy saprophyticus
novobiocin susceptible
general gram-stain morphology of staphylococci
gram positive cocci in clusters
identification of Staph aureus. exception?
catalase-positive, gram-positive cocci in clusters forming white to yellow, cream, opaque colonies on BAP that is slide and tube coagulase positive in 4 hours.
-exception: coagulase-positive staph isolated from dog bite, suspect S. intermedius
similarities between Streptococcus and Enterococcus
gram-positive cocci seen in chains and catalase-negative
hemolysis pattern of Strep pyogenes on BAP. What factors cause this pattern?
beta hemolytic caused by stroptolysin O and S
common poststreptococcal disease resulting from Strep pyogenes
acute glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever
primary cause of bacterial pneumonia. gram stain morphology of bacteria
Strep pneumoniae: gram-positive, lancet-shaped cocci occuring singly, in pairs, or short chains
define catalse. associated with what gram-positive cocci?
enzyme that catalyzes H2O2 into O2 and H2O.
catalase-positive GPC: Staph; catalase-negative GPC: Strep & Enterococci
Most catalase-negative gram-positive cocci grow on what media with exception to what catalase-negative GPC?
BAP and chocolate except Abiotrophia and Granulicatella AKA "nutritionally defficient" Strep
differentiate between Staph and Micrococcus
Staph is susceptible to furazolidone and Miccrococcus is resistant
What is Group A and Group B strep? How differentiate?
Group A: S.pyogenes; Group B: S. agalactiae
S. pyogenes is bacitracin sensitive and S. agalactiae is bacitracin resistant
special processing of specimens suspected of Bacillus spp.
heat or alcohol shock to increase chances of laboratory isolation of spore forming Bacillus spp
should Bacillus spp be grown on MAC or CNA?
neither; MAC selects for gram-negative bacteria and CNA can inhibit nalidixic acid susceptible spp
media for isolation and id of B. anthracis
PLET and bicarbonate agar
biochemical test that differentiates B. anthracis from B. cereus
B. antracis is nonmotile and B. cereus is motile
morphological differences from B. anthracis and B. cereus
B. antracis is nonhemolytic and B. cerues is beta-hemolytic
catalase-positive, gram-positive rods that don't form spores, survives within phagocytes
Listeria monocytogenes
catalase-positive, gram-positive rods that dont form spores, produces extremely potent cytotoxic exotoxin
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
cold enrichment is a procedure using a nutrient broth at 4*C for weeks to months to aid in the isolation of?
Listeria monocytogenes from placental tissue
general characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae. exception?
gram-negative, glucose fermentor, oxidase-negative, reduce nitrates to nitrites and catalse positive straight rods with rounded ends
-exception: Shigella dysenteriae is catalase-negative
members of Enterobacteriaceae that are considered overt pathogens
Salmonella typhi: typhoid fever; Shigella spp.: dysentery; and Y. pestis: "black" plague
gram-negative coccobacilli resembling a closed safety pin
Y. pestis
proper media for cultivation of E. coli 0157:H7
MacConkey-Sorbitol agar
special conditions for cultivation of Y. enterocolitica
48 hours on CIN (cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin)
"bulls-eye" colonies on CIN after 48 hours incubation indicates what organisms
1.
2.
how differentiate?
1. Y. enterocolitica (oxidase-negative)
2. Aeromonas spp (oxidase-positive)
second and third most commonly encountered gram-negative bacilli in clinical specimens. how differentiated?
Acinetobacter spp and stenotrophomonas maltophilia (greenish pigment on BAP)
how Acinetobacter spp and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia differentiated from Enterobacteriaceae?
Enterobacteriacea ferment glucose
Vibrio choleae characteristic in growth requirement
does not require salt for growth
most commonly encountered organism in clinical specimens that are a part of animal normal flora, transmitted by traumatic inoculation through human skin
Pasteurella multocida
gram-negative bacilli/coccobacilli susceptible to penicillin
Pasteurella spp
define HACEK and name organisms
group of organisms that cause slowly progressive bacterial endocarditis
-Haemophilus aphrophilus
-Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
-Cardiobacterium hominis
-Eikenello corrodens
-Kingella spp
gram-negative bacilli requiring "X" and "V" factor for in vitro growth
Haemophilus spp
environmental conditions for Haemophilus to grow on chocolate agar
5%-10% CO2
gram-negative rods appearing curved or "seagull-winged" shaped
Camplyobacter spp
falcultative, intracellular parasite associated with domesticated livestock
Brucella
gram-negative diplococci that do not elongate whe exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of penicillin. oxidase reaction?
Neiserria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis, Moraxella catarrholis
-oxidase-positive
large, nonpigmented or grey colony cultured on chocolate agar can me moved intact over the surface of the agar
presumptively Moraxella catarrhalis
biochemical test that differentiates coccoid Neisseria spp
N. gonorrhoeae negative maltose, N. meningitidis postive maltose
culture media conditions of gram-negative diplococci. exception?
BAP and chocolate in CO2 enriched, humid environment
-exception: N. gonorrhoeae more fastidious, plate on MTM or NYC medium
carbohydrate profile of Moraxella catarrhalis
inert; glucose, maltose, lactose negative
gram-stain procedure alteration for anaerobic bacteriology
safranin counterstain is left on for 3-5 min
culture media for C. difficile
CCFA cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar