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67 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
sovereignty
The powers exercised by a state in relation to other countries, as well as the supreme powers of a state as exercises over its own inhabitants.
confiscation
The seizing of a company's assets without payment. Prominent example s involving U.S. companies occurred in Cuba and Iran
nationalism
An intense feeling of national pride and unity; an awakening of a nation's people to pride in their country. Nationalism can take on an anti foreign business basis.
domestication
A process by which a host country gradually transfers foreign investments to national control and ownership through a series of government decrees mandating local ownership and greater national involvement in company management.
expropriation
The seizure of an investment by a government in which some reimbursement is made to the investment owner; often the seized investment becomes nationalized.
PSAs
Political and social activists. PSAs are individuals who participate in efforts to change the practices and behaviors of corporations and governments, with tactics that can range from peaceful protest to terrorism.
NGOs
A non-governmental organization is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national, or international level.
common law
The body of law based on tradition, past practices and legal precedents set by courts through interpretations of statues, legal legislation, and past rulings. Common law, which is used in all states in the United States except Louisiana, uses past decisions to interpret statues and apply them to present situations.
Islamic law
The Shari'ah; the legal system based on an interpretation of the Koran. Islamic law encompasses religious duties and obligations as well as the secular aspect of law regulating human acts. Among its provisions is a prohibitions of the payment of interest.
prior use versus registration
The principle, as observed in the United States and other common-law nations, that ownership of intellectual property rights usually goes to whoever can establish first use.
arbitration
A procedure, used as an alternative to litigation, in which parties in a dispute may select a disinterested party or parties as referee to determine the merits of the case and make a judgement that both parties agree to honor
cybersquatter
Persons or businesses that buy, usually for a nominal fee, and register as Web site names descriptive nouns, celebrity names, variations on company trademarks, geographic and ethnic group names, and pharmaceutical and other descriptors and then hold them until they can be sold at an inflated prices.
code law
A legal system based on an all inclusive system of written rules, or codes, of law; generally divided into three separate codes: commercial, civil, and criminal. In the US, Louisiana is the one state to use code law.
Marxist- socialist tenets
The set of views in which law is subordinate to prevailing economic conditions. Marxist- socialist tenets influenced in the legal systems of Russia and other republics of the former Soviet Union, as well as China, forcing the nations to revamp their commercial legal code as they become involved in trade with non-Marxist countries.
conciliation
A non binding agreement between parties to resolve disputes by asking a thirst party to mediate differences. Also known as mediation.
litigation
The process in which a dispute between parties is contested in a formal judicial setting; commonly instigated by a lawsuit asserting one party's version of the facts.
market research
The systematic gathering, recording and analyzing of data to provide information useful in marketing decision making
research process
The process of obtaining information; it should begin with a definition of the research problem and establishment of objectives, and proceed with an orderly approach to the collection and analysis of data
secondary data
Data collected by an agency or individual other than the one conducting research; often useful in market research
back translation
The process in which a document, such as a questionnaire, or phrase is translated from one language to another and then translated by a second party in to the original language. Back translations can be sued to verify that the first translation, as of a marketing slogan, has the intended meeting for the targeted audience.
expert opinion
A method of market estimation in which experts are polled for their opinions about market size and growth rates; used particularly in foreign countries that are new to the marketer
analogy
A method of market estimation that assumes that demand for a product develops in much the same way in all counties as comparable economic development occurs in each country.
international marketing research
form of marketing research that involves two additional considerations: 1) the need to communicate information across national boundaries and 2) the challenge of applying established marketing techniques in different environments of foreign markets, some of which may be strange or vexing milieus for the marketer
primary data
Data collected, as in market research, specifically for a particular research project
multicultural research
Inquiry, analysis, and study of countries and cultures that takes into account differences in language, economic structure, social structure, behavior and attitude patterns. Different methods of research may have varying reliability in different countries.
parallel translation
A method of translation in which two translators are used to make a back translation; the results are compared, differences are discussed, and the most appropriate translation is used. The method addresses the use of common idioms in the languages being translated.
decentering
A method of translation, a variation on back translation, that is successive process of translation and retranslation of document, such as a questionnaire, each time by a different translator. The two original- language versions are then compared, and if there are differences, the process is repeated until the second original language version is the same as the first
distribution process
The physical handling of goods, the passage of ownership (title), and- especially important from a marketing viewpoint- the buying and selling negotiations between the producers and middlemen and between middlemen and customers
distribution structure
The system, present in every country's market, through which goods pass from producer to user; within the structure are a variety of middlemen
distribution channels
The various routers through which marketers must negotiate their goods to deliver them to the customer. Distribution channel structures range from those with little developed marketing infrastructure, as found in many emerging markets, to those with a highly complex, multilayered systems, as found in Japan. Consideration from channel structure involves "the six C's": cost, capital, control, coverage, character, and continuity
dealer
The middlemen selling industrial goods or durable goods directly to customers; they are the last step in the distribution channel
import jobber
In international transactions, business entities that purchase goods directly from the manufacturer and sell to wholesalers and retailers and to industrial customers.
Export Trading Company Act
ETC- An act allowing producers of similar products in the United States to form an export trading company; the act created a more favorable environment for the formation of joint export ventures, in party by removing antitrust disincentives to trade activities
facilitating agency
An organization that performs activities helpful in performing channel functions but does not buy, sell, or transfer title to the product; it can be a transport company, an insurance company, an advertising agency, a marketing research agency, or a financial institution.
agent middlemen
In an international transitions, intermediaries who represent the principle (home manufacturer/market rather than themselves; agent middlemen work on commission and arrange for sales in the foreign country but do not take title to the merchandise
merchant middlemen
In international transactions, the intermediaries located in the foreign market, who take title to the home-coutnry manufacturer's goods and sell on their own account. Manufacturers using merchant middlemen have less control over the distribution process than using agent middlemen.
home-country middlemen
In international transactions, the intermediaries located in the producer's home country, who provide marketing services from a domestic base; also known as domestic middlemen. Home-country middlemen offer advantages for companies with small international sales volume or for those inexperienced in international trade.
trading company
Business entities that accumulate, transport, and distribute goods from many counties
complementary marketing
The process by which companies with excess marketing capacity in different countries or with a desire for a broader product line take on additional lines for international distribution; commonly called piggybacking
Large-Scale Retail Store Location Act
A regulatory act in Japan, implemented under pressure from the United States in 2000; it replaced the protective Large-Scale Retail Store Law and relaxed restrictions on the opening of large retailers near small shops and abolished the mandate on the number of days a store must be closed
Commerce Control List (CCL)
A directory, organized by a series of Export Control Classification Numbers, that indicates US rules for the exportability of items. Exporters must use the list to determine if there are end-use restrictions on certain items, such as uses in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, and determine if a product has a dual use- that is both in commercial and restricted applications
Export Control Classification Number (ECCN)
An act allowing producers of similar products in the United States to form an export trading company; the act created a more favorable environment for the formation of joint export ventures, in part by removing antitrust disincentives to trade activities
Commerce Country Chart (CCC)
A directory of information that a US exporter needs to consult, along with the cCommerce Control List, to determine if the exporter needs a license to export or reexport a product to a particular destination.
export regulations
Restrictions placed by countries on the selling of goods abroad; among reasons they may be imposed are to conserve scarce goods for home consumption and to control the flow of strategic goods are or potential enemies
import regulations
restrictions placed by countries on the sale of goods from outside markets; among the reasons they are all imposed are to protect health, conserve foreign exchange, serve as economic reprisals, protect home industry, and provide revenue from tariffs. Exporters to markets under such regulations may have to go through various steps to comply with them
Export Administrative Regulations (EAR)
A set of rules issued by the US Department of Commerce, designed to alleviate many of the problems and confusions of exporting; they are intended to speed up the process of granting export licenses by concentrating license control on a list of specific items, most of which involve national security. Exporters must ensure that their activities do not violate the provisions of the EAR.
logistics management
A total systems approach to management of the distribution process that includes all activities involved, and finished goods inventory from the point of origin to the point of use or consumption
consular invoice
or Certificate of Origin- some countries require consular invoices obtained from the country's consulate and returned with two to eight copies in the language of the country, along with copies of other required documents (e.g., import license, commercial invoice, bill of lading) before certification is granted. Preparation of the document should be handled with extreme care because fines are levied for any errors uncovered. In most countries, the fine is shared with whoever finds the errors, so few go undetected.
letter of credit
Financing devices that, when opened by a buyer goods, allow the seller to draw a draft against the bank issuing the credit and receive dollars by presenting proper shipping documentation. Except for cash in advance, letters of credit afford the seller the greatest degree of protection
bills of exchange
A form of international commercial payment drawn by sellers on foreign buyers; in transactions based on bills of exchange, the seller assumes all risk until the actual dollars are received, making the risker for the seller than letters of credit
24 hour rule
A US requirement, part of the Cargo and Container Security Initiative, mandating that sea carriers and NVOCCs (Non-Vessel Operating Common Carriers) provide US Customs with detailed descriptions (manifests) of the contents of containers bound for the US 24 hours before a container is located
C-TPAT
The Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) is a voluntary supply chain security program led by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and focused on improving the security of private companies' supply chains with respect to terrorism
CSI
Cargo and Container Security Initiative- 24 hour rule page 456
RFID
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that uses communication via electromagnetic waves to exchange data between a terminal and an object such as a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader
bill of lading
Most important document required for establishing legal ownership and facilitating financial transactions. It serves the following purposes: 1) as a contract for shipment between the carrier and shipper, 2) as a receipt from the carrier for shipment, 3) as a certificate of ownership or title to the goods
commercial invoice
Every international transaction requires a commercial invoice, that is a bill or statement for the goods sold. This document often serves several purposes; some countries require a copy for customs clearance, and it is one of the financial documents required in international commercial payments
customs-priviledged facilities
Areas, as in international transactions where goods can be imported for storage and or processing with tariffs and quota limits postponed until the products leave the designated areas
foreign-trade zone
FTZs Regions or ports that act as holding areas for goods before quotas or customs duties are applied. In the US more than 150 FTZs allow companies to land imported goods for storage or various processing such as cleaning or packaging before the goods are officially brought into the United States or reexported to another country.
maquiladoras
Also known as in-bond companies or twin plants, a type of customs-priviledged facility that originated in Mexico in the 1970s and provided US companies with a favorable means to use low-cost Mexican labor. They operate through an agreement with the Mexican government allowing US companies to import parts and materials into Mexico without import taxes provided the finished products are reexported to the US or some other country
export control
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forfaiting
A financing technique that may be used in a international transaction in which the seller makes a one-time arrangement with a bank or other financial institutions to take over responsibility for collecting the account receivable
physical distribution system
The overall network for physical movement of goods, including plants and warehousing, transportation, mode, inventory quantities, and packaging
merge-in-transit
A distribution method in which goods shipped from several supply locations are consolidated into one final customer delivery point while they are in transit and then shipped as a unit to the customer.
SNAP
Simplified Network Application Process; an electronic service offered by the US Department of Commerce as an alternative to paper license submissions that enables an exporter to submit and reexport applications, high-performance computer notices, and commodity classification requests via the Internet
ELAIN
Export License Application and Information Network; an electronic service that enables authorized exporters to submit licenses applications via the Internet for all commodities except supercomputers and to all free-world destinations
STELA
System for Tracking Export License Applications; an automated voice response system for exporters that enables license applicants to track the status of their license and classification applicants with US authorities
ERIC
Electronic Request for Item Classification; a supplementary service to ELAIN that allows an exports to submit commodity classification requests via the Internet to the Bureau of Export administration