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104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an arrangement of activities involving a group of people
organizational structure
Control-and-coordination mechanism. A sales force or any other group involved in a joint effort to meet a goal.
Four categories of sales organizations
1. Line organization
2. Line-and-staff org.
3. Functional org.
4. Horizontal org.
Line organization
Authority flows from chief executive to first subordinate and so on.
Line-and-staff org.
Take a line org. and add staff assistants who are specialists in various areas (adv, mkt, sales, etc)
Functional org
Each activity specialist-advertising or sales promotion for example-has line authority over the activity in relations with the sales force.
Horizontal org
Eliminates both management levels and departmental boundaries.
Geographical org
Most widely used system for dividing responsibility and line authority over sales ops. Sales force is grouped based on physical territories
Product operating specialization
Likely used when company is selling..
-variety of complex, technical products
-Thousands of products
-Unrelated products
Product staff specialization
Commonly used when management wants to use staff assistants who specialize by product
Strategic Account Management (SAM)/Global Account Management (GAM)
Used to describe a company's management of large customers
Buying center
all the individuals in their buying process:
-Users of product.
-Influencers who set the product specifications.
-Deciders who make actual purchasing decision
-Gatekeepers who control flow of purchasing info
-Buyers who process the purchase orders
selling team
group of people representing the sales department and other functional areas in the firm
selling centers
Company establishes a separate location where sales team meets with customer buying teams. Selling team presents an integrated program that matches the accounts' needs
independent agents
wholesaling intermediaries that do not take ownership title to the product they sell
manufacturer's rep
most widely used. A single producer usually uses several of these who each have a specified geographical territory.
type of ind. agent. Bring sellers and buyers together
wholesale distributors
type of ind. agent. intermediaries who take ownership title to the products they sell.
Can't discriminate with regard to age, sex, race, religion, national origin, disability, or status as a veteran
affirmative action
Must make additional efforts to recruit, employ, and promote qualified members of groups who were formerly excluded
civil rights act
prohibits discrim. based on race, color, religion, nationality, or sex
federal contract compliance, executive orders
ensures that federal contractors with 50 or more employees will comply with federal legislation and submit affirmative action plans
age discrimination employment act
based on age
fair employment opportunity act
established the equal employment opportunity commission (EEOC) to ensure compliance with the civil rights act for firms with 25/more workers
rehabilitation act
requires affirm. action to hire and promote persons with disabilities if the firm employs 50/more and is seeking federal contracts in excess of $50,000
vietnam era veterans readjustment act
requires affirm. action to hire vietnam vets and disabled vets of any war by firms holding contracts in excess of $10,000
uniform guidelines on employment selection procedures
the EEOC, US civil service, and departments of justice and labor jointly issued these guidelines to prevent discrimination practices in hiring
americans with disabilities act
prohibits discrimination based on handicaps or disabilities (either physical or mental)
5 steps in staffing a sales force
1. Plan the recruiting and selection process
2. Recruit an adequate # of applicants
3. Select the most qualified
4. Hire those people
5. Assimilate the new hires
job analysis
the actual task of determining what constitutes a given job
job description
document that sets forth the findings of the job analysis
job qualifications
specific, personal qualifications and characteristics applicants should possess
job profile
the kind of person the firm is seeking
all activities involved in securing individuals who will apply for the job
recommendation by 1 individual that another be hired for a position
process of statistically measuring the extent to which a given selection tool or hiring qualification is a predictor of job performance.
bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ's)
questions interviewers may ask in sensitive areas only if they relate to the job
application blank
personal history record. most widely used selection tool
experience requirement
educational background and work experience
socioenvironmental qualification
membership of social, service, or business org...hobbies, athletics, etc
personal interview
used to determine person's fitness for a job
guided interview
a firm uses the same guide sheet containing a series of questions
nondirected interview
interviewer asks a few questions to get the applicant talking on certain subjects
situation-based questions
define behaviors in certain situations
behavior based questions
past behaviors that relate to sales aptitued
performance based questions
observe candidates performance on a selling related exercise
stress interview
interviewer intentionally places stress on applicant
psychological testing
includes everything from intelligence to personality tests
recruit accepts position
someone with knowledge, experience, rank, or power who provides personal counseling and career guidance
the three stages in the management process
a sales force that calls on prospective customers, usually at the customers home or place of business
outside sales force
the four parts of the marketing mix
parts of the promotional/communications mix
sales promotion
personal selling efforts
public relations
components that add to the product itself, such as information and service
value-added components
the process by which a firm builds long term relationships with customers for the purpose of creating mutual competitive advantages
relationship marketing/selling
when salespeople focus on the immediate one time sale of the product
transaction selling
uses relationship selling techniques to demonstrate how his companies products will contribute to the customers well being or profit
consultative seller
focus on a smaller number of big, important customers
key account seller
focuses on prospecting for customers and generating new accounts
new business seller
salespeople who support the actual selling done by the reps in other categories
sales support
product specialists who work with the customer to assist them with tech problems
sales engineers
sales people who do not solicit orders but rather work for the manufacturer and call on customers to spread product info
missionary sellers
maintenance salespeople that facilitate sales to customers or to business accounts that have already been established
delivery seller
when sales people feel caught in the middle between the conflicting demands of the people they must satisfy
role conflict
situations where salespeople are uncertain about what to do
role ambiguity
role conflict, role ambiguity, and expectations that sales people will contribute increasing revenues to their companies leads to
role stress
consists of the aspects of the natural world, including climate and weather conditions, also resources like oil and water
physical environment
the measurements of basic characteristics of the human population such as age, sex, race, income, etc
simply refer to the overall health of the economy
economic conditions
laws, ordinances, regulations, etc, that can impact a sales organization
inventions, innovations, and advances in scientific knowledge
involves the marketing activities of rival firms, in most cases this force has the greatest impact on the sales organization
management has 2 sets of controllable forces
-the companies resources in non marketing areas
-the components of the marketing mix
identifying the needs and wants of the target market and satisfying those needs better than the competition can
the marketing concept
the process of planning, implementing, and coordinating all marketing activities and integrating them into the overall operations of the firm
marketing management
earliest salesperson, sold small goods from a cart or a wagon
paid straight commission, sold small goods, however worked for a single manufacturer
like canvassers, but mostly females
book agents
salesmen working for a wholesale company to sell goods to owners of general stores, mix of salary and commission
the process by which a company strives to improve customer satisfaction through the contunuous improvement of all of its operations
total quality management. (tqm)
the three parts of strategic planning
the goals around which a strategic plan is formulated
plans of action to achieve the objectives
the activities that people must perform in order to carry out the strategy
what does strategic planning start with?
the organizations fundamental mission
what are the benefits of using multiple sales channels?
-maintain existing customer bases
-cut costs
-expand market coverage
what kind of customer requires transactional selling?
customers who are not interested in, or who are unable to afford the value added services offered by the selling firm
what kind of customers require consultative selling?
customers who are interested in the value added service
the method or system by which salespeople learn the names of people who need the product and who can afford it
a full listing of the names and contact info for all prospects, categorized by how likely they are to purchase the product
sales pipeline
the info gained during the sales cal may cause the salesperson to alter their initial objectives or plans
adaptive selling
making an appointment with the buyer after learning their name and other info
the stage in which the salesperson must discover, clarify, and understand the buyers needs
need assessment
factual questions that ask for factual information about the buyers current situations
situational questions
questions used to uncover potential problems, difficulties, or dissatisfaction the customer is experiencing that the salespersons products can solve
problem discovery questions
the are questions about the impact that the buyers problem will have on various aspects of the companys operations
problem impact questions
questions that ask about the value or the importance of a solution to a problem uncovered earlier in the conversation
solution value agreements
questions which are also called trial closes, ask for confirmation from buyers that they are interested in hearing how your products can help them
confirmatory questions
a discussion of those product and or service features, advantages, and benefits that the customer has indicated are important
describe the characteristics of the product or service
describe how the feature changes the performance of the product or service
describe how the advantage will help the buyer
when a salesperson asks the buyer to take action that moves the sale forward
gaining commitment "close"