Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/179

Click to flip

179 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a PSYCHO IS ASKED TO EVALUATE A PRISONER FOR THE PURPOSE OF MAKING A RECOMMENDATION ABOUT THE prisoner's readiness for parole. To be consistent with ethical guidelines, the psycho should:
conduct the eval as long as the prisoner has been told the purpose of the evauation and has been warned about the limits on confidentiality
Attentional capacity can be increased by:
a. self-monitoring
b. providing identical elements
c. elaborative interrogation
d. chunking and practice
d. chunking and practice - short-term memory capacity is also known as attentional capacity
______ is used to transfer information from short-term memory to long-term memory.
elaborative interrogation
______ are useful for maximizing transfer of training.
identical elements
The _____ is responsibile for the body's flight or flight reaction:
a. limbic system
b. thalamus
c. parasympathetic nervous system
d. sympathetic nervous system
d. sympathetic nervous system
In terms of parenting styles, adolescent antisocial behavior is most associated with which of the following:
a. authoritarian
b. uninvolved
c. permissive
d. instrumental
b. uninvolved
Dementia due to HIV disease is characterized by:
a. aphasia, irritability, and anxiety
b. apraxia, primitive reflexes, and behavioral disinhibition
c. involuntary movements, fatigue and altered vision
d. apathy, social withdrawal, and psychomotor slowing
d. apathy, social withdrawal, and psychomotor slowing
In training, providing identical elements is most useful for:
a. maximizing ovelearning
b. reducing the probability of proactive and retroactive interference
c. ensuring transfer of training
d. providing opportunities for active practice
identical elements refers to similarities in the learning and performance environments
Experts on cross-cultural counseling note that, when working with AA clients, it is important to recognize that their past experiences in a racist society are likely to have fostered feelings of powerlessness. Consequently, a good strategy for a therapist is to adopt a:
a. non-directive, less active approach
b. problem-solving, time-limited approach
c. color-blind approach
d. neutral, educative approach
b. problem-solving, time-limited approach
A task-oriented leader is most effective when the work situation is characterized either by good leader-member relations, a structured task, and strong leader power or by moderately poor leader-member relations, an unstructured task, and weak leader power. This is predicted by:
a. Fiedler's congingency theory
b. Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership model
c. House's path-goal theory
d. Vroom, Yetton, and Jago's normative model`
a. Fielder proposed that low LPC task-oriented leaders are most effective when the situation is either very favorable or very unfavorable in terms of the leader's ability to lead
A 60yo man with Korsakoff's Syndrome would have difficulty:
a. remembering how to shave and brush his teeth
b. remembering what he watched on tv last night
c. remembering where he went to college
d. retriving information from short-term memory
b. remembering what he watched on tv last night - the ability to form new memories - short term memory is intact, but the individual is unable to transfer info from short-term to long-term
A teenage girl who has a scar on her forehead feels like people are always looking at her and talking about her scar. This is an illustration of:
a. psychological reactance
b. imaginary audience
c. identity foreclosure
d. personal fable
b. imaginary audience
______ occurs when in individual does the opposite of what she has been asked to do.
reactance
______ is the belief that one is unique and invulnerable
personal fable
A person with associative visual agnosia
a. can name a familiar object she sees but does not know how to use it
b. cannot name a familiar object she sees but can name it when it is placed in her hand
c. cannot name a familiat object because she doesn't recognit\ze it
d. recognizes a familiar object but is unable to name it
recognizes a familiar object but is unable to name it
cannot name a familiar object she sees but can name it when it is placed in her hand?
aperceptive visual agnosia
Underlying the technique known as stress inoculation is the assumption that:
a. exposure to stressful situations extinguishes the stress reaction to habituation
b. exposure to stressful situations leads to catharsis, which results in reduced reactivity
c. successful coping with stress strengthens the ability to cope with stress in the future
d. expecting exposure to stressful stimuli reduces their impact
c. when using this technique, a person acquires a variety of skillls to help her cope with the current problem as well as with future probs.
In terms of the requirements of the Ethics Code, which of the following is true about consent forms for therapy:
a. for a consent to be valid, it must be in writing and must be signed by the client
b. a consent can be ovtained verbally as long as the client is informed about all aspects of treatment
c. information must be provided to the client in understandable language and the consent must be in writing
d. information must be provided to teh client in understandable language and the consent must be documented.
info must be provided to teh client in udnerstandable language and the consent must be documented
Damage to the dorsolateral area of teh prefrontal cortex is likely to have the least impact on performance on:
a. standardized intelligence tests
b. measures of executive functions
c. recall memory tasks
d. measures of creativity
a. standardized intelligence tests - also disrupte performance on recall tasks and creativity
Studies investigating stepparent-stepchild relationships indicate that:
a. stepmothers tend to be harsher disciplinarians than stepfathers
b. stepfathers tend to be uninvolved with their stepchildren
b. stepfathers tend to be uninvolved with their stepchildren
Families with stepparents tend to be more _____.
authoritarian
Stepparent-stepchild relationships tend to be more _____ for boys than for girls.
easier
Symptoms during the early stages of Alzheimer's disease have been most closely linked to which type of neuron:
a. cholinergic
b. serotonergic
c. GABAergic
d. noradrenergic
ACh plays the biggest role:
a. loss of cholinergic cells (cells that secrete ACh) is evident during the early stages of the disorder, especially in the hippocampus and cortex
One prediction of goal-setting theory is that difficult goals results in greater productivity than easy or ambiguous goals. With regard to task difficulty, the studies have shown that:
a. the more complex the task, the stronger the link between goal difficulty and productivity
b. the less complex the task, the stronger the link between goal difficulty and productivity
c. re relationship betweeen task complexity and productivity is curvilnear with the strongest link being between moderate goal complexity and productivity
b. the less complex the task, the stronger the link between goal difficulty and productivity
According to Helms, the ability of whites to develop a healthy racial identity is most closely related to:
a. identification with a particular culture
b. ego-identity development
c. social identification
d. the extent of racism in the society
d. the extent of racism in the society
Vestibule training would be most useful:
a. for teaching basic skills to unskilled workers
b. when on the job training would be too dangerious
c. when training costs must be kept to a minimum
d. for teaching complex cognitive skills
b. when on the job training would be too dangerous - can be costly
Approximately ____ of women experience moderate to severe postpartum depression that persists for weeks:
a. 2 to 5%
b. 10 to 15%
c. 20 to 30%
d. 40-45%
b. 10 to 15%
A latino client suffering from depression is most likely to complain about:
a. being heartbroken
b. recurrent headaches
c. experiencing an imbalance
d. feelings of guilt
b. recurrent headaches
A Hopi client suffering from depression is most likely to complain about:
being heartbroken
An Asian client suffering from depression is most likely to complain about:
experiencing an imbalance
A school develops an intervention that involves having fifth graders who excel in math assist third and fourth graders who are havving probs in math. The older students will model appropriate arithmetic problem solving and provide the younger students with cues and support. This is an example of:
a. mentoring
b. coaching
c. shaping
d. scaffolding
d. scaffolding - originally described by Vygotsky. It occurs when an adult or more experienced child provides instruction in the child's "zone of priximal development."
Responsibility for the validaity of information provided by an automated test scoring and interpretation service lies with:
a. the test scoring and interpretation service
b. the psycho who is in charge of the test scoring and interpretation service
c. the psycho who uses the test scoring and interpretation service
d. the test scoring and interpretation service and teh psycho who uses the service
c. the psycho who uses the test scoring and interpretation service
Durin gthe fouth session, a therapy client says he is already feeling much better. Most likely:
a. this is simply a transitory placebo effect
b. this reflecs the initial develop of insight
c. the client is beg to feel more hopeful about his situation
d. the client is starting to benefir from newly acquired coping skills
c. the client is beg to feel more hopeful about his siuation
Which of the following groups has the highest rate of admission to private and state/county mental hospital inpatient services:
a. married men
b. never married men
c. married women
d. never married women
b. never married men
Research on bilingualism suggests that it:
a. ahs deterimental effects on several aspects of children's cognitive performance esp during the elementary school years
b. has beneficial effects on chidren's cognitive flexibility and metalinguistic awareness in teh elementary school years, but these effects probably do not persist
c. has beneficial effects on cognitive flexibility and metalinguistic awareness during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood
b. has beneficial effects on children's cognitive flexibility and metalinguistic awareness in the elementary school years, but these effects prob do not persist
Use of behavioral therapy in conjunction with nicotine replacement therapy as an intervention for cig smoking:
d. is better than nicotine replacement therapy alone, esp in terms of long-term effects
According to Sue and sue, when a personality test indicates that an AA client is mistrustful and paranoid, this may suggest:
a. depression
b. schizo
c. a healthy reaction to racism
d. culturally-biased test
c. a healthy reaction to racism
Which of the following theorists would most agree with the belief that dreams represent rehearsals of future courses of action:
a. Adler
b. Jung
c. Perls
d. Freud
A. Adlerians consider dreams to be imp sources of info about client's lifestyles and progress in therapy, as well as rehearsals of future courses of action
______ considered dreams to be the royal road to the unconscious and analyzed patients' dreams in order to help uncover unconscious conflicts and motives.
Freud
In Ridley's explanation of distrust that often exists between AA clients and their therapists, the therapist's ethnicity is the most important factor for:
a. a confluent paranoiac
b. a cultural paranoiac
c. a non-paranoiac
a. a confluent paranoiac - exhibits high cultural and functional paranoia - combination of pathology and effects of racism
The antipsychotic drugs are believed to exert their beneficial effects by blocking particular dopamine receptors. An exception is
a. haloperidol
b. flupentixol
c. perphenazine
d. clozapine
d. clozapine - seems to have limited effects on D2 eceptors and instead affects serotonin receptors and to some degree D4 receptors
Complete or almost complete loss of movement is referred to as:
a. athetosis
b. atonia
c. akathisia
d. akinesia
d. akinesia
______ refers to slow, uncoordinated, and involuntary movements of the extremities
Athetosis
____ is a lack of muscle tone.
Atonia
____ is an inability to sit or stand motionless along with a feeling of restlessness.
Akathisia
Which of the following approaches in family therapy encourages the therapist to engage in therapeutic triangles with family members during the tx process?
a. extended family systems therapy
b. communication/interaction family therapy
c. adaptive family therapy
d. strategic family therapy
a. extended family systems therapy - the therapist actively interacts with two family members during the tx. The goal is to shed light on fusion that exists between family members. Becoming engaged with family members does not mean that therapists become emotionally triangled, which is something Bowenians are trained to avoid.
Which of the following statements is incorrect about computer-assisted instruction in the classroom?
a. it increases social interactions among children
b. it leads to improvements on standardized achievment tests
c. it decreases students' phobias toward computers
d. it is more beneficial for high-ability students
d. may actually benefit low-ability students more.... reduces competition and judgment of higher-ability peers - provides individualized instruction
The effectiveness of clomipramine in alleviating symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and trichotillomania suggests that these disorders are due to:
a. oversensitivity to GABA
b,. an imbalance between acetylcholine and dopamine
c. oversensitivity to serotonin or dopamine
d. a shortage of serotonin
d. a shortage of serotonin - clomipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant that has been found to be effective tx for OCD. It is believed to exert its effects by blocking the reuptake of serotonin from synaptic clefts
The second phase of a grand mal seizure involves:
a. muscle contractions
b. sleep
c. jerky movements of the limbs
d. automatisms
c. jerky movements of the limbs
When treating elderly clients, they might spend their time in session reminiscing about events in their past. If this occurs, the therapist should:
a. abe patient and recognize that reminiscing is a healthy activity
b. remind the patient that reminiscing is not an efficient use of time in therapy
c. discourage reminiscing
d. inform them that they should not spend too much time living in the past
a. be patient and recognize that reminiscing is healthy
During adolescence, peer pressure:
a. has the most influence with regard to antisocial behaviors
b. ahs the most influence with regard to behaviors that do not have clear standards
c. determines behavior and attitudes more than parental influence
d. determines behavior and attitudes less than the influence of the same-sex parent
b. has the most influence with regard to behaviors that do not have clear standards
You are developing an educational program to discourage high school students from using drugs. You are considering using "fear arousal" as one method for persuading the students but should keep in mind that the research has shown that:
a. lower levels of fear arousal are associated with gratest amount of opinion change
b. the greater the amount of fear arouses, the greater the opinion change
c. high levels of far arousal are associated with the greatest amount of opinion change as long as certain conditions are met
c. high levels of fear arousal are assoc with the greatest amount of opinion change as long as certain conditions are met - as long as the fear-arousing message is accompanied by info on what actions to take to erduce or avert dangerous consequences
The inability to repeat what one has just heard without a loss of comprehension is characteristic of:
a. Broca's aphasia
b. Wenicke's aphasia
c. conduction aphasia
d. anomic aphasia
c. conduction aphasia
_____ involves difficulty in producing speech.
broca's aphasia
____ is characterized by impairment in comprehension with little impact on the production of speech.
Wernicke's aphasia
____ is characterized by impairments in the ability to retrive and label semantic concepts
Anomic aphasia
Several approaches are commonly used as the basis for the development of interest tests. The Strong and the Kuder tests both represent which approach:
a. trait
b. factor
c. clinical
d. actuarial
d. actuarial approach - involves looking for consistencies in interest data.
The ______ approach underlies Holland's six occupational themes.
trait and factor approach
You are most likely to report "feeling crowded" in a high density situation if you are watching a:
a. humorous film
b. sexual film
c. violent film
d. documentary
d. documentary - nonarousing film - enjoy the arousing film more under crowded conditions
Research on sex-role stereotyping has indicated that:
a. male and female therapists rate males and females in a nonsterotypic way
b. male therapists rate males more favorably while female therapists rate females more favorably
d. male and female therapists rate males more favorably
d. male and female therapists rate males more favorably
The _____ scale of the MMPI-2 consists of 64 items that were answered in the deviant direction by less than 10% of the standardization sample. A high score on this scale suggests carelessness in responding, malingering, or an attempt to look bad:
F scale
The ____ scale contains items that most people would agree with. A high score indicates a desire to present oneself in a favorable light.
L - lie scale
A high ____ scale score indicates defensiveness.
K scale
Research on the role of hormones on sexual arousal suggests that:
a. estrogen is responsible for arousal in females while androgen is responsible for arousal in males
b. estrogen is responsible for arousal in males, while androgen is responsible for arousal in females
d. androgen is responsibile for arousal in both females and males
d. androgen is repsonsible for arousal in both females and males - estrogen plays an insignificant role in female sexual motivation and arousal
_____ is produced by the adrenal cortex and plays an imp role in the sexual functioning in both sexes
androgen
The WAIS is administered to a 23yo male who receives a Verbal IQ score of 78 and a performance IQ score of 98. These scores are most suggestive of which of the following:
a. chronic anxiety
b. mental retardation
c. organicity
d. schizophrenia
c. organicity - brain damage (esp left hemisphere damage) is suggested when Verbal IQ is significantly lwoer than performance IQ - a difference of 15 points is generally considered significant
Male and female subjects are asked to evaluate essays labeled by the supposed sex of the author. REsults of the study will most likely indicate that:
a. only females assign higher scores supposedly written by males
b. only females assign higher scores to essays supposedly written by females
c. both males and females assign higher scores to essays supposedly written by males
c. both males and females assign higher score to essays suppposedly written by males
X-rays reveal that a 49yo man has suffered brain damage as the result of a recent automaobile accident. Which of the following WAIS subtests is likely to show the least decrement as a result of the man's brin injury:
a. block design
b. digit span
c. picture arrangment
d. vocabulary
d. vocabulary - evaluates general intelligence and vocabulary level often used to estimate premorbid adjustment
By three to four months of age, infants express, through facial expression:
a. startle and interest only
b. startle, interest, disgusts, and distress
c., startle, joy, disgust, and fear
d. startle, interest, joy, anger, and shyness
b. startle, interest, disgust, and distess
To assess the general intelligence of a 6yo deaf child, you would use which of the following tests:
a. Halstead-Reitan
b. Kaufman ASsessment Battery
c. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test
d. Hiskey-Nebraska
d. Hiskey-Nebraska
The ______ is a screening test for brain damage which assesses sensorimotor, perceptual, and language functioning.
Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery
The ______ is an intelligence test designed to test the iq of children ages 2 1/2 to 12 1/2. Research indicates that this test is especially appropriate for use with preschool, minority, language-imparied, and exceptional children.
Kaufman Assessment Battery
The _____ test is designed to measure "receptive vocabulary," which presumably provides a nonverbal estimate of iq. It was designed for severely handicapped individuals and can be administered to any examinee who can hear a stimulus word, see drawings, and in some way communicate a response.
The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - revised
Results of Wallerstein's ten-year longitudinal study of children of divorced parents suggests that:
a. older children and adolescents suffer more than preschool at teh time of the divorce but exhibit fewer negativ effects ten years later
b. older children and teens suffer less than preschool children at teh time of divorce but exhibit more negativ effects ten years later
c. older hcildren and teens exhibit more negative effects at the time and later
b. older children and adolescents suffer less than preschool children at the time of divorce but exhibit more negative effects ten years later
Under hypnosis, a person's least likely to:
a. become passive, never initiating activity until told to do so
b. believe just about anything
c. do things she is otherwise fundamentally opposed to doing
d. stop feeling pain to a greater degree than a pain killer
c. do things she is otherwise fundamentally opposed to doing - LEAST likely
Maternal anxiety during pregnancy is associated with all of the following except:
a. premature birth of the infant
b. greater no of delivery complications
c. infants with lower than normal levels ofa ctivity
d. infants with more feeding and sleep probs than normal
c. infants with lower than normal levels of activity
You're picniking in a part and are approached by a large bear who seems interested in your cold cuts. You notice that the bear is two feet taller than you. You decide to run away as fast as you can. The gland that produces the substance that will help you escapt is the:
b. pituitary
b. adrenal
c. thyroid
d. pancreas
b. adrenal
The _____ known as the master gland, releases several hormones, many of which regulate and stimulate the production of hormones by other glands
pituitary
The ____ produces thyroxin, which regulates general metabolism.
thyroid gland
The ____ produces insulin, which is involved in the metabolism of sugar.
pancreas
Children normally begin to talk around their first birthday. Studies investigating the nature of a child's lang develop have whown that a large propostion of a child's first words refer to:
a. objects that are related to eating
b. objects that the child can hold
c. objects that static and invariable
d. objects that move or change
d. objects that move or change
Among AA males, aged 15 to 24,
a. the rates of suicide are less than for white males of the same age, but the rates for both groups are increasing
b. the rates of suicide are greater than for white males
c. the rates of suicide are less but increasing
a. the rates of suicide are less than for whites of teh same age, but the rates for both are increasing
Slight and incomplete paralysis is referred to as:
a. paresthesia
b. paresis
c. hemiplegia
d. athetosis
b. paresis
_____ are abnormal sensations such as numbness, tingling, or prickling
parethesias
_____ is paralysis that is restricted to one side of the body.
Hemiplegia
_____ is characterized by slow writhing movements
Athetosis
In treating a patient with delirium, a priority is to identify and then teat or remove its cause. In addition, it is important to:
a. make sure that the patient is provided with adequate stimulation
b. keep the patient in a quiet room where she can be monitored
c. administer a neuroleptic to reduce disoreientation and agitation
b. it's imp to reduce distractions and to provide a quiet, well-lit room and constant monitoring
The assessment of patients with Alzheimer's Dementia is an ongoing process due to the degenerative nature of the disease and the consequent need to alter the nature of the ex plan. During the 4th and 5th year, an assessment is most likely to find:
a. deficits in new learning with remote memory mildly to moderately impaired; anomia; sadness
b. severe impairments in recent and remote memory; fluent aphasia, indifference or irritability; restlessness
c. severe impairments in memory and executive functioning; motor rigidity; confusion and delusions
d. severely disturbed intellectual functioning, limb rigidity and flexion posture; apathy, seizures
b. severe impairments in recent and remote memory; fluent aphasia, indifference or irritability; restlessness
deficits in new learning with remote memory mildly to moderately impaired; anomia; sadness
2-3 years of Alzheimer's Dementia
severe impairments in memory and executive functioning; motor rigidity; confusion and delusions -
8-12 years Alzheimer's Dementia - late stage
An assumption underlying organizational theory is that organizations are "open systems." Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of open systems:
a. they import energy (input) from the external environment
b. in response to external threats, they become either defensive or adaptive, depending on the situation.
c. over time, they become incerasingly less differentiated
d. an end state in the system can be reached via several diff paths.
c. over time, open systems become more differentiated and elaborated
The procedures known as "time-out" and "response cost" share in common which of the following:
a. both are forms of operant extinction
b. both entail withholding positive consequences
c. both eliminate the need for punishment
d. both entail using negative reinforcement
b. both entail withholding positive consequences - both types of negative punishment that involve the removal of positive reinforcement
A recent shift in both psychiatry and clinical psych reflects an increased acceptance of a ____ explanation of emotional disturbance:
a. systems
b. psychosocial
c. medical
d. functional
c. medical
A feeling of numbness or tingling in one's arms andlegs is most associated with:
a. caffeine intox
b. Panic Disorder
c. Factitious Disorder
d. hypothyroidism
b. Panic Disorder
The rate of depression for married women:
a. is lwoer than for unmarrieds
b. is lower than the rate for married men
c. is higher than the rate for unmarried women and married men
d. is the same as for unmarrieds
c. is higher than the rate for unmarried women and married men
Research on "gendered environs" suggest that, in the classroom:
a. boys have more interactions with teachers and tend to receive more feedback
a. boys have more interactions with teachers and tend to receive more feedback
The phenomenon known as "spontaneous recovery" confirms the hypothesis that the loss of a conditioned response represents which of the following:
a. a decay of memory traces
b. stimulus discrimination
c. forgetting
d. inhibition
d. inhibition
A Hispanic client would have the most difficulty working with a non-Hispanic therapist who
a. views interdependency as both healthy and necessary
b. emphasizes formality over informality
c. uses a multi-modal approach to tx
d. emphasizes a here and now perspective
b. emphasizes formality over informality
A number of proejctions have been made about the nature of the workforce by the year 2k. Which of the following is NOT accurate about these projections?
a. the size of the labor force will increase in the 1990s at a slower rate than it has at any time since the 1930s
b. about one third of new entrants will be minorities
c. while the proportion of young workers willd ecrease, the proportion of older folks will increase
d. by the year 2k women will make up nearly 50% of the workforce
d. closer to 60%
A young man has been dx as having Narcissistic Personality Disorder. You can expect that he will display:
a. a preoccupation with feelings of envy
b. a pattern of instability in self-image; interpersonal relationships, and mood
c. grandiose bx and a lack of empathy
c. grandiose bx and a lack of empathy - there is envy too though
For refugees and immigrants, the major source of stress in their new country is most often:
a. rejection by members of mainstream
b. intergenerational conflicts arising from diff degrees of acculturation among family members
c. insecurity due to economic loss and unemployability
d. an inability to adjust due to lack of communication skills
b. intergenerational conflicts
A family therapist whose techniques are derived from the work of Murray Bowen would most likely view the Schizophrenia of a family member as the result of:
a. a failure of complimentarity
b. a multigenerational transmission process
c. family loyalty
d. faulty communication patterns
b. a multigenerational transmission process
A family therapist whose techniques are derived from the work of Nathan Ackerman would most likely view the Schizophrenia of a family member as the result of:
A failure of complimentarity - utilizes a psychoanalytic approach to family therapy. Complimentarity refers to harmony in social roles in a family system
A family therapist whose techniques are derived from the work of Boszormenyi-Nagy's would most likely view the Schizophrenia of a family member as the result of:
a. a failure of complimentarity
b. a multigenerational transmission process
c. family loyalty
d. faulty communication patterns
c. family loyalty - intergenerational-contextual family therapy
When aversive conditioning is being used to eliminate a fetish, the fetish is the
a. Unconditioned stimulus
b. unconditioned response
c. conditioned stimulus
d. conditioned response
c. conditioned stimulus - the unconditioned stimulus is a stimulus that elicits the desired response before conditioning, or training occurs.
______ is a form of counterconditioning which involves pairing a stimulus associated with the target behavior with a stimulus that naturally evokes an unpleasant response in order to eliminate the target behavior.
aversive conditioning
The ______ is a stimulus that elicits the desired response before conditioning, or training occurs.
unconditioned stimulus
In aversive conditioning, the stimulus that naturally evokes the aversive response serves as the ______.
unconditioned stimulus
The ______ is the response that is naturally elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.
unconditioned response
The response that occurs as a result of contitioning is the _____.
conditioned response.
Which of the following would be LEAST useful for eliminating the halo effect, the central tendency bias, and other rater biases from performance ratings:
a. paired comparison
b. Likert scale
c. forced distribution
d. ranking
b. Likert scale - very susceptible to rater biases
The _______ requires the rater to compare each employee with each other employee and, therefore, does eliminate response biases.
paired comparison method
The _____ is a method of controlling rater biases.
forced distribution
Like the paired comparison and forced distribution methods, _____ is a relative technique and helps reduce rating biases.
ranking
An employer can refuse to hire older workers:
a. only when there is a much larger proportion of younger than older applicants for the job
b. when previous experience with an older worker has suggested that they cannot perform the job successfully
c. when the employer hires older workers for other jobs in the company
d. when younger age is clearly required by the nature of the job.
d. when younger age is clearly required by the nature of the job
The procedure known as stress inoculation involves three basic phases. The final phase can be described as being most similar to which of the following:
a. implosive therapy
b. systematic desensitization
c. overcorrection
d. operant extinction
b. systematic desensitization - the final stage of stress inoculation involves having the clinet practice her newly-acquired coping skills to imagined or in vivo stress-arousing sits.
______ involves having individuals repeatedly imagine an anxiety-arousing sit and to experience anxiety as intensely as poss in order to extinguish the anxiety response.
implosive therapy
_____ is used to decrease undesirable behaviors by having the individual correct the negative consequences of the bx and practice more appropriate behaviors.
overcorrection
______ occurs when previously reinforced behaviors are not longer reinforced.
operant extinction
During the first session with an Asian-American client, he tells his non-Asian therapist that he would prefer to see an Asian psycho. The therapist's best course of action would be to:
a. discuss the issue and make a referral if, after the discussion, the client says he still wants to see an Asian therapist
a. yeah
In his well-known 1973 study, Rosenhan had several pseudopatients admit themselves to a psych hospital with complaints of auditory hallucinations. Which of the following is most useful for explaining the results of Rosenhan's study:
a. central tendency error
b. Hawthorne effect
c. contrast effect
d. halo effect
halo effect (d) - rater bias that occurs when a rater's ratings of an individual on one or several dimensions are affected by her rating on another dimension. Continued to base their first ratings (dx), regardless of the subsequent behaviors
_____ error is a rater bias that occurs when a rater tends to rate all individuals in the middle range of a rating scale.
Central tendency error
The _____ preducts that organizational change, regardless of its intent or content, produces a positive effect on worker motivation and/or performance.
The Hawthorne effect
The _____ refers to the perception of neightened difference between two stimuli when they are juxtaposed or when one immediately follow the other. In interview situations, a ____ occurs when an interviewer's assessment of an interviewee is affected by her impressions of previous interviewees
Contrast effect
A colleague of yours, an industrial psychologist, designs a study to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and mental and physical health. Based on your knowledge of the research in this area, you tell him that:
a. there is no consistent relationship between job satisfaction and mental or physical health
b. there is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and mental or physical health
b. there is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and mental and physical health
Which of the following is incorrectly matched:
a. acquired immune deficiency syndrome: demential and depression
b. multiple sclerosis: personality changes and mood swings
c. hypothyroidism: paranoia and delusions
d. hypoglycemia: irritability and hyperactivity
d. hypoglycemia: irritability and hyperactivity
Research comparing younger and older workers has found that:
a. younger workers tend to be more satisfied than older workers
b. younger workers have more realistic expectations about their jobs than older workers
d. younger workers expect more personal fulfillment from their jobs than older workers
d. younger workers expect more personal fulfillment from their jobs than older workers
An electrolyte imbalance is a possible complication of Bulimia Nervosa. The dangers of this complication lies in the face that it can lead to:
a. cardiac arrhythmias and arrest
b. blood dyscracias
c. permanent memory loss
d. dehydration
a. cardiac arrhythmias and arrest
The FI scallop refers to:
a. the characteristic pause followed by accelerated responding that occurs within each fixed interval
b. the characteristic increase in responding that occurs after reinforcement at the end of each fixed interval
c. the characteristic gradual pause followed by an essential instaneous high rate of responding that occurs between each fixed interval
a. the characteristic pause followed by accelerated responding that occurs within each fixed interval
Which of the following drugs has been most consistently found to be effective for the tx of enuresis in children:
a. tricyclic antidepressants
b. anticholinergics
c. anticonvulsants
d. anxiolytics
a. tricyclic antidepressants - imipramine....
In tx an 8yo who doesn't like going to bed at night cause he's afraid of the dark, which is the best intervention?
a. participant modeling
b. cognitive self-control
c. flooding
d. systematic desensitization
b. cog self-control
A communality is best described as:
a. the proportion of variance accounted for by a single factor in mult variables
b. the proportion of variance accounted for my mult factors in a single variable
c. the proportion of variance accounted for my multiple factors in mult variables
d. the total proportion of variance that is not attributable to error
b. the proportion of variance accounted for my multiple factors in a single variable
A paraphilia is:
a. inhibition in sexual desire
b. sexual urges involving non-living objects
c. non-normative sexual arousal
d. sexual guilt or shame
c. non-norm sexual arousal or activity
A colleague tells u that, during a family tx session, it became evident that the father had sexually abused his 14yo daughter in the past. The colleague has decided not to make a report, because she is afraid that doing so will create a family crisis:
a. do nothing
b. discuss the matter with your colleague and point out the repercussions of not making a report
c. file a report with the appropriate authorities yourself
b. discuss the matter with the colleague and point out the repercussions of not making a report
The correction for attenuation formula is useful for estimating a validity coefficient when:
a. sources of systematic error have been controlled
b. sources of criterion contamination ahve not been adequately eliminated
c. measurement error has affected the magnitude of the coefficient
d. smapling error has apparently biased the magnitude of the coefficient
c. measurement error has affected the magnitude of the coefficient - the correction for attenuation formulat estimates the validity coefficient when measurment error in teh predictor/criterion has been eliminated
A behaviorist might argue that the use of spanking as a behavioral management technique is not effective because:
a. it leads to child abuse
b. it teaches children to be aggerssive
c,. changes in behavior won't last over time
d. changes in behavior won't occur at all
c. changes in behavior won't last over time
To use two or more categorical variables to predict status on a single categorical variable, you would use which of the following:
a. discriminant analysis
b., logit analysis
c. mult regression analysis
d. canonical correlation analysis
b. Logit analysis
______ is used when the predictors are measured on a continuous scale and the criterion is nominal (categorical)
Discriminant analysis
_____ requires the predictors and criterion to be measured on a continuous scale.
Multiple regression
______ corelation is used when there are multiple ivs and multiple dvs that are measured on a continuous scale.
canonical correlation
The nature of the relationship between a measure's reliability coefficient and its correlation with another measure (e.g., its validity coefficient) suggests that all of the following are possible except:
a. a measure with a low reliability coefficient can correlate more highly with another measure than it does with itself if the other measure has a high reliability coefficient
a. a measure with a reliability coefficient of 1.0 can have a zero correlation with another measure even if the other measure has a high reliability coefficient
c. a measure with a near-zero reliability coefficient will have a low correlation with another measure regardless of the size of the other measure's erliability coefficient
d. the reliability coefficient of either measure can be no less than the square root of the correlation between the two measures
d.The validity coefficient cannot exceed the square root of the reliability coefficient
Which of the following symptoms would be most useful for distinguishing between delirium and dementia
a. impaied memory
b. hallucinations
c. reduced consciousness
d. depessed mood
c. rediced consciousness
According to psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism of ____ can be said to underlie all other defense mechanisms:
a. regression
b. repression
c. sublimination
d. projection
b. repression
With regard to the care and use of animals in research, a psycho
c. is responsible for the animals herself
c. good
You conduct a research study to compare the effects of four weight-loss programs. To compare the average weight lost by participants in the four groups, you could conduct either a series of t-tests or a one-way ANOVA. You decide to use the one-way ANOVA becasue its use:
a. willdecrease the likelihood that you will make a Type I error
b. will decrease the likelihood that you will make a Type II error
c. will allow you to control the effects of anextraneous variable
d. will allow you to assess both main and interaction effects
a. will decrease the likelihood that you will make a Type I error - helps control the experiment wise error rate . If alpha is set at .05 for this study, the probability of making a Type I error would be held at 5%. If individual t-tests were conducted, each at the .05 level, the probability of making a Type I eerror would be much higher.
A study must include at least ____ to assess interaction effects.
two independent variables
When preparing an advertisement for her services, a clinical psycho should keep in mind that, with regard to appeals to fear:
a. they are prohibited
b. they are prohibited only if they arouse excessive fear or anxiety
c. they are prohibited only if they include false, deceptive, or misleading info
c. they are prohibited only if they include false, deceptive or misleading info
Item response theory is considered a useful technique for constructing all of the folowing types of tests except:
a. criterin-keyed tests
b. tailored (computerized) tests
c. diagnostic or employemnt screening tests
d. teacher-made (classroom) achievment tests
d. teacher-made tests - item response theory is theoretically and mathematically very complex, which limits is usage. Requires constructing a response curve for each item. To do so, a large sample of examinees is needed.
From a "control systems" perspective, when established control mechanisms are no longer effective due to radical changes in the environment, new mechanisms must be sought or developed. These new mechanisms will help the system adapt to environmental changes by providing:
a. negative feedback
b. positive feedback
c. formative evaluations
d. summative evaluations
b. positive feedback - incorporates the principles of cybernetics - a positive feedback induces change and can result in runaways, when the system must adapt to radical changes in the environment, it is positive feedback that makes adaptation possible
The primary purpose of informed consent is best defined as
a. providing a client with the info needed to make a reasonable decision about the services offered.
b. providing a client with info about teh particular sit in which confidentiality may be breached
c. ensuring that a client is provided with appropriate and adequate services
d. protecting the practitioner from malpractice claims
a. providing a client with the info needed to make a reasonable decision about the services offered
Tulving has divided memory into three types: procedural, episodic, and semantic. According to Tulving, semantic memory:
a. consists of internal representations of stimulus-response connections
b. is more affected by amnesia than procedural memory and episodic memory
c. includes rules for manipulating words and symbols
d. is coded temporarlly
c. includes rules for manipulating words and symbols
Historically, which of the following has been considered the hallmark of addiction:
a. a craving for the substance
b. denial
c. impairments in social and occupational functioning
d. tolerance and withdrawal
d. tolerance and withdrawal
Studies investiating the job attitudes of young workers suggest that, for these individuals, which of the following is becoming increasingly more important for job satisfaction:
a. security
b. pay
c. challenge
d. recognition
c. challenge
In treating a client, a reality therapist would most likely be interested in which of the following:
a. the client's sense of responsibility and needs for power, freedom, and belongingness
b. the client's cognitive distortions
c. the nature of the client's ego state pathology
d. the client's level of response-ability
a. the client's sense of rsponsibility and needs for power, freedom, and belongingness
The differential dx of depression and dementia in elderly individuals can be difficult since both disorders involve depressed mood and cognitive deficits. In terms of cognitive deficits, depression is the more likely diagnosis when:
a. free recall is impaired but recognition memory is relatively intact
b. recognition memory is impaired but free recall is relatively intact
c. verbal memory is impaired but nonverbal memory is relatively intact
a. free recall is impaired but recognition memory is relatively intact
An industrial psychologist is developing a test battery to be used for the purpose of job placement and classification. The psychologist will be most concerned about which of the following types of validity:
a. synthetic validity
b. construct validity
c. differential validity
d. internal validity
c. differential validity - a test has differential validity to the degree that it accurately predicts performance on one behavioral dimention to the exclusion of others. Each test in a test battery should predict performance on only one dimension in this case, on only one job.
_____ is of interest to researchers and refers to the ability to conclude on the basis of the results of a research study, that there is a causal relationship between iv and dv variables.
internal validity
LISREL is used to analyze
a. unidirectional and bidirectional causal relationships between latent variables
b. unidirectional causal relationships between observed variables
A. The LISREL model assumes that 10 there are unidirectional dn bidirectional relationships between latent traits and 2) that measured variables reflect both latent traits and the effects of measurement
______ or linear structural relations analysis, is a complex multivariate technique used to test the veracity of hypotheses about the causal relationships among a set of variables that are believed to measure or reflect latent traits.
LISREL
Magnification, arbitrary inference, overgeneralization, and other cognitive errors:
a. are unique to individuals with depression
b. are unique to individuals with affective disorders
c. are unique to individualswith depression or anxiety
d. may be found among depressed individuals and those who are healthy.
d. may be found among depressed individuals and those who are healthy.
While attending a psychology conf, a colleague reports that she has developed a new assmt eval for suicide risk. You believe that this test may help you in your practice. However you learn that this test is labeled, For Research Purposes only, at this time. Given this info, what is appropriate:
a. you wouldn't use it
b. you learn as much as poss about this new test and then use it
a. you wouldn't use it
Multiple regression analysis has several advantages over the analysis of variance including all of the following except:
a. it eliminates the need for a two-stage analysis involving a global significance test that is followed, when appropriate, by fine grain significance tests
b. it is not limited to categorical variables
c. it enables the researcher to determine if entering additional iv affects the dv beyond the effects found for previously entered variables
d. it allows the researcher to estimate the effects of the iv on the dv with the effects of measurement error removed
d.
What method enables the researcher to determine if entering additional iv affects the dv beyond the effects found for previously entered variables?
stepwise method of multiple regression
The purpose of reframing is to
a. diffuse blame
b. redefine behaviors
c. increase specificity
d. anchor behaviors
b. redefine behaviors - helps patient see things from a different perspective
Someone who has taken the previous psych license exam sells you questions that appeared on the exam.
duh unethical and illegal
The research has shown that the majority of women who are physically abused by their husbands are abused more than once. Of the following, which is most related to the woman's decision to stay or leave an abusive relationship:
a. the woman believes her husband will fulfill his promise to change
b. the woman feels economically dependent
c. the woman believes she has nowhere else to go
d. the woman fears her husband will retaliate if she leaves
b. the woman feels economically dependent
Which of the following is characterized by the dual goals of helping children take responsibility for and suffer the natural consequences of their actions?
a. transactional analysis
b. psychodynamic psychotherapy
c. systemic therapy
d. reality therapy
d. reality therapy - according to Glasser, a success identity results when one takes responsibility for fulfiling one's needs and does so in ways that do not interfere with the ability of others to do the same thing
A student obtains a percentile rank of 84 on the verbal subtst of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. If the student's score had been one standard deviation higher, her percentile rank would have been approx:
a. 90.0
b. 95.0
c. 98.0
d. 99.9
c. 98.0 - To answer this question, you must know that in a normal dist, a percentile rank of 84 is equal to a raw score that is 1 standard deviation from the mean. (You could figure this out by knowing the areas under the normal curve ie., about 68% of scores fall between those scores that are 1.0 and -1.0 standard deviation units from the mean, about 95% fall between 2.0 and -2.0 standard deviation units, and about 99% fall between 3.0 and -3.0 standard deviation units.

A percentile rank of 84 is equivalent to the score that is one standard deviation above the mean (50 percent of scores fall below the mean and 34 percent between the mean and the score that is one standard deviation above the mean; a percentile rank of 97.5 is equivalent to the score that is 2.0 standard deviations above the mean (50 percent fall below and 47.5 between the mean and the score that is two standard deviations above the mean). Tehrefore, even though the question does not state what the shape of the dist of scores is, this is the best response.
An undergrad student is asked by a prof to assist in a new research project. The student will help with the literature review and datqa analysis. According to the Ethics Code, when the research is published, the student should, at a minimum:
a. be listed as a co-author
b. be mentioned in an introductory statement or a footnote
c. be mentioned in the abstract
b. be mentioned in an introductory statement or a footnote.
Which of the following best describes the court decision in Tarasoff v. Regents fo the University of California:
b. therapists have a duty to warn the intended victim when they believe a client is a danger to another person
d. Therapists have a duty to protect a client when they believe she is a danger to herself
b. therapists have a duty to warn the intended victim when they believe a client is a danger to another person
If scores on two tests are correlated, then multiplying each score on in one set of test score by five will ____ the Pearson r.

a. increase
b. decrease
c. have no effect on
d. increase or decrease
c. The Pearson r is a measure of the degree of association between variables, or put another way, of the extent to which a score on one variable can accurately predict a score on another variaable.
When conducting group therapy, you should remind group members:
a. that they are legally bound to maintain confidentiality
c. of the necessity for maintaining confidentiality
d. not to reveal the names of group members to others
c. of the necessity for maintaining confidentiality
Multicolinearity could be expected to
a. cause the values of the beta weights to vary substantially from sample to sample
b. cause the multiple correlation coefficient to vary substantially from sample to sample
c. increase as the number of dv decreases
d. decrease as the correlation between iv increases
a. cause the values of the beta weights to vary substantially from sample to sample - Multicolinearity occurs when predictors in a multiple regression equation correlate highly with one another.
When predictors are correlated and the predictors and criterion are administered to different samples and new bets (regression) weights are derived for each sample, there tends to be a great deal of fluctuation in the size of the weights. (not necessary for u to understand why this is so for the exam)
By definition, multicolinearity ____ as the correlation between predictors increases.
Increases
According to the APA's General Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services, the term "psychological services" applies to all of the following except:
a. administration and scoring of psychological tests
b. teaching psych at a university
c. supervising delivery of psychological services
d. conducting psychotherapy in private practice
b. teaching psychology at a university
Dr. Bernard is designing a longtitudinal study on drug use in high schools. Since the study is lonitudinal, it will be necessary to maintain records containing the subjects' identities. A colleague of Dr. Bernard's reminds him of a similar situation in which the investigator was subpoenaed to appear in court to testify against a research subject who had been involved in illegal activies. The investigator refused to testify in order to maintain the subject's confidentiality and was imprisoned. What should Dr. Bernard do in order to avoid a similar dilemma:
a. if subpoenaed by the court, testify since legal requirements override ethical considerations.
b. if subpoenaed by the court, testify only after obtaining consent of the subject
c. warn subjects prior to their participation in teh study about the possibility of a breach of confidentiality and obtain informed consents
d. design the study so that the names of subjects are maintained ina separate file by a third party
c. warn subjects prior to their participation in the study about the possibility of a breach
An intern at a large mental health clinic decides to work at another agency. The intern makes appointments to see several of the clinic's clients at her new place of employment. Her actions are:
a. ethical as long as adequat supervision ....
c. unethical because she has previously worked with the clients
d. unethical becasue the clients are already receiving services from the clinic
d. unethical because the clients are already receiving services from the clinic
You are working as a school psychologist at an elementary school and are asked by teh principal to eval ten children for possible placement in special ed. After evaluating the children, you recommend that four of them be placed in special ed classes. Two weeks later, u learn that, despite your recommendations ,the principal ahs decided to transfer all ten children to the special ed classes. As an ethical psycho, you should:
a. send a letter of protest to the school board
b. contact the parents
c. attempt to informally resolve the matter with the principal
d. do nothing since it is the principal's responsibility to make decisions about placements in special ed classes
c. attempt to informally resolve the matter with the principal
A clinical psycho is asked by a company to evaluate the eligibility of certain employees for promotion. The psycho evaluates each employee, and on the basis of test and interview results, writes a report, which she submits to the company. One of the employees who is not promoted asks the psycho for a copy of the report and of the test that was administered to him. The psycho should:
a. give the employee a copy
b. give the employee a copy of just the report
c. set up an appt with the employee to discuss the report and test results with him
d. refuse to give him anything
c. set up an appt with the employee to discussthe report and test results with him