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208 Cards in this Set

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You've been asked by your client's attorney to serve as a fact witness.Your client, the plaintiff, SUFFERED A SERIOUS PHYSICAL INJURY IN THE workplace and has since experienced significant emotional probs as a result of the injury. You've been working with the client for the past several mos. During your testimony, you are asked by the plaintiff's attorney if, in your opinion, the client's emotional problems are directly related to teh injury. You should
a. provide info as long as you have sufficient data to support your opinion
b. provide the info only if the plaintiff has waived her right to confidentiality
c. not provide the info unless ordered to do so
c. not provide info - unlike expert witness who can offer opinions, a fact witness, as its name implies can only testify about facts. A psychologist, while serving as a fact witness, could give an opinion, but only ifordered by the court and any opinions should be qualified by a statement about its limitations
The mother of your 8yo patient calls to inform you of a meeting being held at the school in 30 minutes to discuss the child's recent bx probs. The child reportedly has had repeated bouts of yelling and hitting other students. The mother requests that u call the school psycho to discuss your eval of the child's behavior. U should:
a. tell the mo that you're sorry u can't releast info until she signs a release
b. agree to provide the info and document the mo's verbal consent to releast it in your patient's file
c. call the school and provide them with the minimal amt of info that isappropriate
d. agree to provide the info by phone but folow up with a written report to the school psycho.
b. the Codes doesn't require the consent to be in writing. Documentation of verbal consent could be sufficient, particularly under an urgent situation. You should also limit the disclosure to only relevant, though not necessarily "minimal" info
A father and his 19yo son present for therapy due a variety of conflicts in their relationship. The fa is a businessperson and the son is an artist. What techniques owuld a solution-focused family therapist use?
a. joining adn restructuring
b. paradoxical directives and reframing
c. miracle and scaling questions
dj. non-directive listening and interpretation
c. The miracle question invites the client to imagine what it would be like if her problem were suddenly gone. The scaling question invites each family member to rate a situation to see how the problem is perceived by others.
Joining and restructuring is used by:
structural famil therapists
Paradoxical directives and reframing are used by:
strategic family therapists
Non-directive listening and interpretation are used by:
object relations family therapists
An AA adult repeatedly expresses his superiority as an AA and expresses contempt for all Caucasians. According to Cross' Nigrescence Theory, this person is most likely in which stage of development?
a. Pre-encounter
b. encounter
c. immersion-emersion
d. internalization-commitment
c. immersion-emersion stage -
The incidence of OCD is:
a. the same for males and females across all ages
b. about twice as common in males thanf emales
c. higher among boys but about equal among adult males and females
d. higher among girls but about equal among adult males and females
c. earlier peak onset for males.... between ages 6 and 15 and for females it is between ages 20 and 29. In adulthood, the incidence is about the same for both sexes.
A man is referred for psychotherapy after ruling out sleep apnea and other medical conditions. The patient reports having vivid frightening dreams, restless sleep, chronic fatigue and a hx of alcohol abuse. His dx is most likely:
a. Narcolepsy
b. Insomnia
c. Alcohol-induced sleep disorder
d. persisting alcohol-induced sleep disorder
c. alcohol-induced sleep disorder - after 3-4 hrs of sleep there is an increase in wakefulness, restless eleep and REM.
______ is characterized by irresistible attacks of refreshing sleep.
Narcolepsy
Although considered to be an effective tx for severe and treatment-resistant depression, ECT often produces adverse side effects including:
a. temporary retrograde amnesia
b. permanent retrograde amnesia
c. patchy anterograde amnesia
d. patchy anterograde amnesia and temporary retrograde amnesia
d. can last to 6 months and the retrograde amnesia is usually limited to the events that occurred several mos prior to the ECT
A child is put in time-out because he was making other children laugh in class. After 15 minutes in time-out he apologized to the teacher and promised not to do that again. The teacher then allowed him to erturn to his regular seat. The following day the boy again disrupted the class. The teacher directed him to go to time-out again. This time, after 5 minutes, the boy apologized and promised not to misbehave again. His remorse is apparently due to:
a. positive reinforcement
b. negative punishment
c. avoidance conditioning
d. escapte conditioning.
d. escape conditioning - the boy's remorese is apparently due to negative reinforcement, the removal of the aversive stimulus (time-out) led to an increase in the probability of his remoreseful behavior.
_______ is a type of negative reinforcement.
escape conditioning
In _____ an individual is able to escape from an aversive stimulus by engaging in a particular behavior.
escape conditioning
______ is another form of negative reinforcement in which a cue is presented PRIOR to the aversive stimulus.
avoidance conditioning
Procedureal memory is to declarative memory as:
a. skill is to fact
b. fact is to experience
c. explicit is to implicit
d. choic is to iconic
a. skill is to fact
Long term memory is categorized into ______ and ______.
explicit or declarative; implicit or procedural
_____ memory refers to retrieval with a conscious awareness of remembering. This includes memory of facts as well as the meaning of words (semantic memory) and memory of episodic (autobiographical) events.
Explicit or declarative
______ is an unconscious type of retrieval for automatic skills and memory for how to do things, ie, procedures.
Implcit or procedural
______ and _______ only holds information for a few seconds.
auditory (choic) and visual (iconic)
Organizational surveys are most often used to
a. Evaluate employee attitudes and opinions about an intervention
b. evaluate the effects of an organization-wide intervention
c. allow employees to evaluate the job performance of their coworkers
d. identify employees who would likely benefit from an intervention
a. evaluate employee attitudes and opinions about an intervention
_______ also known as organizational surveys, are most often used to evaluate employee attitudes and opinions about job satisfaction, job conditions, and problems at work. They also are used to ask for opinions about interventions, however, they are not generally used to evaluate the effects of interventions.
Survey feedback or organizational surveys
You are hired as a consultant to a large organization and are asked to make a recommendation regarding the best work schedules to implement. You recommend a compressed work week because it most likely will result in:
a. increased productivity but decreased satisfaction
b. decreased productivity but increased satisfaction
c. increased satisfaction with little or no effect on productivity
d. increased satisfaction and increased productivity.
c. increased satisfaction with little or no effect on productivity
A ____ work week requires employees to work fewer days but more hours per day.
compressed
Following major surgery and anesthesia, an elderly patient is most likely to suffer from:
a. dystonia
b. dementia
c. delirium
d. dyskinesia
c. delirium
____ is abnormal muscle tone
dystonia
_____ is distortion of movement
dyskinesia
A person is experiencing sweating tremors, insomnia, and bizarre visual hallucinations. This may be due to:
a. Anabolic steroid use
b. Benzodiazepine withdrawal
c. hyperthyroidism
d. Cushing's Syndrome
B. Benzodiazepine withdrawal
______ can produce acne, edema, mood lability, and aggressiveness.
anabolic steroid use
_____ exhibit some of the same symptoms as bennzo withdrawal, such as anxiety and insomnia, but can also cause chest pain and tachycardia, weight loss, decreased libido and mood lability
Hyperthyroidism
According to Kohlberg's theory of moral development, individuals who reach Stage 5 base their moral judgments on:
a. empathy
b. autonomous morality
c. democratic laws
d. universal ethical principles
c. democratic laws - post-conventional
______ is a term used by Piaget denoting the stage when children recognize that rules are determined by agreement and are alterable.
autonomous morality
_____ is more characteristic of Stage 6 in Kohlberg's model in which morality transcends legal standards.
universal ethical principles
The smallest distinctive sound units of language are referred to as:
a. babbling
b. phonemes
c. morphemes
d. holophrases
b. phonemes -
Phonemes combine to form ______ which are words or parts of words which carry meaning.
morphemes
______ are whole words which are combined with gestures and intonation to express an entire thought.
Holophrases
Mary obtaina a percentile rank of 93 on a chemistry test and John obtains a 58 percentile rank on the same test. Due to errors in scoring their exams, 5 points have to be added to each of their raw scores, but not to the scores of the other examinees. This should cause:
a. Mary's percentile rank to increase more than John's
b. John's percentile rank to increase more than Mary's
c. the percentile ranks to increase by the same amount
d. the percentile ranks to remain the same
b. John's percentile rank to increase more than Mary's - percentile ranks are evenly distributed, creating a flat or rectangular distribution of percentile scores. However, raw scores in a normasl distribution, form a bell-shape, with most of the scores clustered in the center of the distribution and fewer scores at the high and low ends. Therefore, when points are added to a raw score at the 93rd percentile rank (located at the high end of the distribution), it will "jump over" fewer scores than when the same number of points are added to a raw score at the 58th percentile rank (located closer to the center of the distribution).
A 10yo child is administered the WISC and obtains a score of 140 Full Scale IQ. If she is retested at the age of 16, her IQ score will most likely be:
a. higher
b. lower
c. the same
d. impossible to predict
b. lower - this is really a statistics question. The WISC does have very good reliability over time, and if the IQ score was in the normal range, we could predict that it would stay the same over time. However, a score of 140 on the WISC is extremely high (very superior) and would, therefore, likely be lower upon retesting due to regression to the mean - which is the tendency of extreme scores to be less extreme upon retesting.
A factory requires all job applicants to complete a Biographical Information Blank (BIB) which asks, among other things, for details about the applicant's personal interests and skills. Many of the applicants, upon seeing the test, become very angry and subsequently file a class action suit against the company. The problem with this test seems to be that it lacks:
a. face validity
b. content validity
c. construct validity
d. predictive validity
A. face validity - BIBs have actually been found to be highly predictive of job success and only slightly less valid than cognitive ability tests for predicting job performance. However, they often lack face validity since some of the questions do not appear to the applicants to have anything to do with job performance.
Raven's Progressive Matrices was developed as a measure of:
a. psychomotor ability
b. Spearman's g
c. nonverbal memory
d. sequential processing
b. Spearman's g
_____ refers to general ability common to all intellectual tasks.
Spearman's "g"
Validity studies have found the Raven's Progressive Matrices to be a valid measure of _______.
general intelligence
Several coworkers meet for lunch, during which, a couple of the employees express their frustration about their new supervisor. By the end of the lunch break all members of the group agreed that their supervisor is indeed a "jerk." This is an example of:
a. social loafing
b. group polarization
c. social facilitation
d. negative framing
b. group polarization
_______ refers to decreased individual productivity that occurs when the size of the work group increases.
social loafing
______ refers to improved performance on tasks due to the presence of other people.
social facilitation
______ refers to presenting a problem in negative terms.
Negative framing
In 1954, the US Supreme Court made a ruling which effectively ended segregation adn began the integration of public schools. This decision was, in part, based on research findings adn court testimony which suggested that segregation leads to low self-esteem in black children. The psychologist who conducted this research was:
a. Rupert Brown
b. Kenneth Clark
c. Janet Helms
d. David Sue
b. Kenneth Clark - conducted the famous Doll study which found that 2/3 of the AA children preferred playing with white dolls and perceived the brown dollas as "bad."
During the famous _______ case, this research was cited as evidence that segregation leads to low self-esteem in AA children.
Brown vs. Board of Education
The mother of a 9yo client of yours asks u to testify at an upcoming custody hearing. Since u have been working with the child for the past 6 mos she velieves u are best suited to make a recommendation regarding the custody arrangements. You should:
a. agree to the request only if both parents sign a consent
b. agree to the request only if u are able to evaluate both parents
c. agree to the request but base your opinion on teh best interests of the child
d. refuse to testify
d. refuse to testify - the APA guidelines for child custody evals in divorce proceedings state the psychologists must avoid multiple relationships. therapeutic and evaluative roles
U r a psycho at a state mental hosp. One of your colleagues, a psychiatrist, tells u that 1 of his clients has reported to him that he has sexually abused a child. The perpetrator still has access to the child. The psychiatrist says that he is not going to report the abuse because the client expressed remorse, promised not to do it again, and promised to continue tx. Furthermore, he is widely-known and highly respected. The psychiatrist adamantly refuses to report the child abuse. You should:
contact the appropriate child abuse reporting agency and provide them with info about the abuse and with the colleague's name. - since the primary reporter refuses to make the report, u would be mandated to report the abuse. You would also be obligated to report the identity of the nonreporter to the child abuse reporting agency
A couple avoids any marital conflict by focusing their attention on their child's problems. According to Minuchin's Structural Theory, this is an example of:
a. triangulation
b. enmeshment
c. joining
d. detouring
d. detouring -
______ occurs when each parent attempts to get the child to side with him or her against the other.
Triangulation
_____ results from very unclear boundaries that promote dependence.
Enmeshment
_____ is a therapeutic technique used to blend into the family system.
Joining
A homeless unemployed AA man is depressed and feels that he is the victim of racial oppression. According to Derald Sue he has:
a. an internal locus of control and an internal locus of responsibility
b. an internal locus of control and an external locus of responsibility
c. an external locus of control and an internal locus of responsibility
d. an external locus of control and an external locus of responsibility
d. an external locus of control and an external locus of responsibility
Deral Sue focused on members of minority groups and found that those who exhibit learned helplessness have both an ______ locus of control and an _____ locus of responsibility.
external (based on attribution theory and Seligman's learned helplessness theory)
In working with Native American clients, a therapist using Network Therapy would act primarily as a:
a. catalyst
b. wise parent
c. blank screen
d. educator
a. catalyst - initiates the process adn brings the family, friends, and relatives together to implement the tx process
_____ has been recommended as an appropriate intervention for Native american clients.
Network Therapy
The incidence of Major Depressive Disorder in adult females compared to adult males is 2: 1. This gender difference:
a. is the same for children under 10 years of age
b. is opposite for children under 10
c. does not become evident until mid-adolescence
d. does not become evident until early adulthood
c. does not become evident until mid-adolescence
Prior to puberty, the incidence of Major jDepressive Disorder is _____ for boys and girls.
about equal
A person who experiences cataplexy during his narcoleptic attacks should try to avoid:
a. expressing strong emotions
b. afternoon naps
c. excessive salt intake
d. over-exertion
a. expressing strong emotions - involves episodes of sudden bilateral loss of muscle tone resulting in the individual collapsing, often in association with intense emotions such as laughter, anger, fear, or surprise
Compared to the other types of Specific Phobias, the Blood Injuection Injury Type of Specific Phobia is characterized by:
a. dry skin instead of sweaty skin
b. onset during childhood instead of adulthood
c. low blood pressure instead of high blood pressure
d. a tendency to know that the fear is irrational
c. low blood pressure instead of high blood pressure
In all ______ the person recognizes that the fear is excessive or unreasonable (except in children maybe).
specific phobias
A bell is repeatedly paired with food resulting in a conditioned response. The bell is then paired with a light until it too produces the conditioned response. If the light is then presented without food this would be an example of:
a. Blocking
b. Classical extinction
c. Higher-order conditioning
d. Discriminative stimulus
b. classical extinction - this question attempted to distract u with a description of higher-order conditioning. The key to the question was the last sentence, which described the more basic procedure of classical extinction
Which of the following statements is most true regarding the tx of migraine headaches?
a. autogenic training is superior to thermal biofeedback
b. thermal biofeedback is superior to autogenic training
d. autogenic training combined with thermal biofeedback is considered effective, although the combined tx has not conclusively been found to be superior to either tx alone.
d. autogenic training combined with thermal biofeedback is considered effective, although the combined tx has not conclusively been found to be superior to either tx alone
______ is a type of relaxation training in which the clint learns to engage in autosuggestions such as "my right arm is heavy" or "I'm feeling at peace."
Autogenic training
In ______ the individual is given feedback about her skin temperature.
thermal
In a study, subjects are asked to memorize a list of 10 unrelated words. The subjects are then asked to count backwards by 3's from 99. At 5, 15, and 30 second intervals they are asked to recall the list of words. The reason the subjects are asked to count backwards is to:
a. stimulate proactive interference
b. stimulate retrograde amnesia
c. enhance concentration
d. prevent subjects from rehearsing the list of words
d. prevent subjects from rehearsing the list of words
_____ occurs when previous learning interferes with more recent learning.
Proactive interference (or inhibition)
_____ is a failure to remember events that occurred prior to a trauma.
Retrograde
_____ occurs when new learning interferes with the recall of prior learning.
retroactive interference or inhibition
According to Super's theory, job satisfaction is most related to:
a. the development of their self-concept through their work roles
b. the development of career maturity
c. awareness of personality reality and common reality
d. successful crossing of the Life Career Raninbow
A. the development of their self-concept through their work roles
_____ results when a person masters the tasks at her developmental stage.
career maturity
The ______ refers to nine major roles that individuals adopt throughout their career development.
The Life Career Rainbos (student, parent, spouse, worker)
If you wanted to encourage students to learn new vocabulary words in a foreign language, the most effective approach would be to:
a. tell them to take it easy and not worry about it
b. tell them to learn as many words as they can
c. tell them to take their time and plan to learn 5 words a day
d. put pressure on them and tell them to learn 20 words a day
c. tell them to take their time and plan to learn 5 words a day - Goal Setting Theory
According to goal-setting theory, goals are best attained when the goals are ____ and _____.
specific and moderately difficult
Studies on the effectiveness of fluoxetine (Prozac) for treating anorexia and bulimia suggests that level of serotonin:
a. may be an etiological factor in anoxrexia but not in bulimia
b. may be an itological factor in bulimia but not in anoxrexia
c. is not an etiological factor in either anorexia nor bulimia
d. may be an etiological factor in both disorders.
d. may be an etiological factor in both disorders
______ along with several other SSRIs have been found effective in the tx of anorexia dn bulimia.
Fluoxetine/Prozac
A person who has difficulty repeating words just spoken by another person and recall the name of a familiar object has symptoms of:
a. Wernicke's aphasia
b. Wernicke's and Broca's aphasia
c. Wernicke's and conduction aphasia
d. wernicke's, Broca's, and conduction aphasia.
d. Wernicke's, Broca's, and conduction aphasia
Wernicke's or receptive aphasia primarily affects ____.
comprehension
As a result of impaired comprehension there is also impairment in ______ and ________ language, and problems in ______.
spoken; written; recalling words (anomia)
_____ is a problem in recalling words
anomia
People with _____ have difficultty expressing language and would also have difficult repeating what another has said.
Broca's aphasia
_____ is due to damage to the nerve fibers which connect Broca's area to Wernicke's area.
conduction aphasia
The most typical result of _____ is difficulty repeating what one has heard.
conduction aphasia
When a mother leaves her 12 month old child with a stranger, the child becomes very upset, yet, ignores her when she returns. What type of attachment pattern does this indicate?
a. secure
b. avoidant
c. resistant
d. disoriented
c. resistant
Babies with _____ attachment pattern may avoid contact when their mother when she returns but will show little distress when she leaves.
avoidant attachment pattern
Babies with a _____ pattern of attachment alternate between the avoidant and resistant patterns and are apprehensive and confused.
disoriented
In his study of attachment in infant monkeys, Harlow found which of the following factors to be most significant?
a. auditory cues
b. maternal scent
c. oral gratification
d. tactile comfort
d. pleasant tactile sensation
Using an 8 hour comprehensive battery of tests to assess intelligence, subjects performance systematically declined in the later hours of assessment. This is due to which of the following threats to internal validity?
a. maturation
b. testing
c. selction
d. instrumentation
a. maturation
_____ refers to subjects' improved performance on a post-test due to their experience with the pre-test.
Testing
____ refers to pre-existing subject factors that account for the results in the DV.
selection
_____ threatens internal validity when the measuring process changes between the pre- and posttests
instrumentation
In a study examining the effects of relaxation training on test-taking anxiety, a pre-test measure of anxiety is administered to a group of self-identified highly anxious test takers resulting in a split-half reliability coefficient of .75. If the pretest is administered to a randomly selected group of the same number of people the split-half reliability coefficient will most likely be:
a. greater than .75
b. less than .75
c. equal to .75
d. impossible to predict
a. greater than .75 - a general rule for all correlation coefficients, including reliability coefficients, is that the more heterogeneous the group, i.e. the wider the variability, the higher the coefficient will be. Since a randomly selected group would be more heterogeneous than a grou of highly anxious test-takers, the randomly selected group would most likely have a higher reliability coefficient
A teacher seeks consultation from an educational psychologist in order to pinpoint a child's specific problems in mathematics ability. The psychologist will most likely utilize a:
a. domain-referenced test
b. norm-referenced test
c. criterion-referenced test
d. predictive-referenced test
a. domain-referenced test
A ____ test draws items from a very precisely defined content area and can identify specific strengths and weaknesses.
domain-referenced
Most achievement test in schools use _____ tests which differentiate students at different levels of achievment but do not identify specific strengths or weaknesses.
norm-referenced
_____ are used to interpret test performance based on whether or not students reach an established criterion.
criterion-referenced
A supervisor realizes that his employees are becoming less productive when working in a group. To avoid the effects of social loafing he should:
a. provide clearly defined goals
b. require everyone to provide an equal amount of effort
c. make their jobs more challenging
d. offer the group a reward for meeting the company's goal
c. make their jobs more challenging
____ often occurs when employees, particularly those in high-level positions, are evaluated based on a combined effort of the group rather than for their individual contributions.
Social loafing
Social loafing is more likely to occur when tasks are _____ and ____.
simple; boring
An attorney contact u and requests the raw test data which u collected from a former patient of yours last year. The attorney explains that the info is needed in an upcoming court case in which your former client is a plaintiff in a personal injury case. The client has signed an informed consent for releast of information. You should:
a. release only the info which u believe to be relevant to the case
b. make an appt with the attorney to review the raw data
c. tell the attorney that u can only send the data to another psycho
d. send him the profile sheets but not the test protocols
c. tell the attorney that u can only send the data to another psycho
A psycho can kill an animal in research:
when it is appropriate and if it is done rapidly with an effort to minimize pain
Using a psychoanalytic approach, the sequence of interventions would be:
a. confrontation, clarification, interpretatio, working thourh
b,. clarification, confrontation, interpretation, working through
c. confrontation, interpretation, clarification, working through
d. free association, catharsis, interpretation, working through
a. confrontation, clarification, interpretation, working through
The first stage of psychoanalytic interventions is ______ in which the analyst points out the client's bx is connected to an unconscious conflict or motivation.
confrontation
The second stage is ______, in which there is an exploration to better understand the client's unconscious motives.
clarification
The final stage is _____ during which the client gradually assimilates the insights into her personality.
working through
The term "collaborative empiricism" is associated with:
a. Aaron Beck
b. Albert Ellis
c. Fritz Perls
d. Donald Meichenbaum
a. Aaron Beck
_____ refers to the collaborative relationship between client and therapist using a rational, logical approach to examine the client's thoughts and assumptions.
collaborative empiricism
The basal ganglia
a. connects the two halves of the cerebellum
b. controls sleep, arousal, and attention
c. controls voluntary movement
d. inhibits emotionality
c. controls voluntary movement
The ____ connects two halves of the cerebellum and regulates arousal.
pons
The _____ controls sleep, arousal, and attention.
reticular activating system
The ____ inhibits emotionality.
septum
Hydrocephalus is associated with which of the following structures?
a. corpus callosum
b. limbic system
c. cingulate gyrus
d. ventricles
d. ventricles - cerebrospinal fluid flows through a group of cavities in the brain known as ventricles. Hydrocephalus results when the flow through the ventricles is blocked, producing abnormal pressure which causes brain damage and mental retardation
Although you have extensive experience in administering the WAIS, you have not yet administered the WAIS. If you would like to administer the WAIS, you should
obtain additional training
Among adults who were dx with ADHD during childhood, we could expect that
a. their children will have a 25% chance of developing ADHD
b. up to 70% will continue to exhibit signs of the disorder throughout their lives
c. the symptoms will manifest in the same ways in those who continue to have the disorder
b. up to 70% will cont to exhibit signs of the disorder throughout their lives
Research on sleep patterns in the elderly have generally found that compared to young adults they have:
a.decreased non-REM sleep in stages 3 and 4, and inc absolute amounts of REM
b. increased non-REM sleep in stages 1 and 2, and decreased absolute amounts of REM
c. inc non-REM sleep in stage 4, and decreased absolute amounts of REM
b. increased non-REM sleep in stages 1 and 2, and decreased absolute amounts of REM -
You have been hired as a consultant to a school psycho in order to improve her efficacy in working with children with bx probs. During your consultation, you become aware that she is exhibiting "theme interference." The type of consultation you are providing can best be described as:
a. advocacy
b. process
c. client-centered
d. consultee-centered
d. consultee-centered -
_____ occurs when a worker displaces past or present personal probs onto a situation at work. It is analogous to transferance in psychotherapy.
theme interference
WHich of the following would increase the power of a statistical test?
a. an increase in alpha
b. a decrease in alpha
c. a decrease in sample size
a. an increase in alpha
The power or sensitivity of a statistical test is the probability of _____ the _____ when it is ____.
rejecting; null; false
According to Thomas and Cross's Model of Psychological Nigrescence, which of the following stages represent the final stage of racial identity development for AA?
a. pre-encounter
b. immersion-emersion
c. encounter
d. internalization-commitment
d. internalization-commitment
During a family therapy session, the mo and daughter constantly disagree with and criticize everything the father says. From the perspective of structural family therapy, this is:
a. detouring
b. a coalition
c. a triangle
d. pseudohostility
b. a coalition
Caution is necessary when considering Ritalin for a hyperactive child who has
a. a family hx of Tourette's Syndrome
yes
Testosterone:
a. is norm found in males only
b. is responsible for secondary sex characteristics in maales and females
c. increases sex drive in males and females
c. yes
Patients with Schizo are most likely to have:
enlarged ventricles
According to Piaget, children do not begin to deliberately lie until about age:
a. 4
b. 5
c. 7
d. 10
c. 7 - Piaget proposes that young children are spontaneous liars, but that, by about 7 or 8, they begin to deliberately lie and this ability is related to cognitive development.
About 50% of infants walk well by:
a. 9 mos
b. 12 mos
c. 14 mos
d. 16 mos
b. 12 mos
Factor analysis has shown that job commitment has three forms. Of these, job satisfaction is lease correlated with:
a. affective commitment
b. continuance commitment
c. normative committment
d. instrumental commitment
b. continuance commitment
_____ commitment refers to the employee's psychological attitudes toward the organization.
affective
_____ commitment is the employee's perceived obligation to stay with the company.
Normative
____ commitment refers to the costs of leaving the company.
continuance
Continuance commitment would be _____ related tojob satisfaction and other job-related attitudes and more to ____ considerations.
least; practical
A recent trend in organizational compensation is to use team and organization-wide incentives. Research evaluating the effects of these incentives suggests that:
a. they are associated with lwoer levels of productivity than individual incentives.
b. they are associated with lower levels of productivity than individual incentives as well as with lower morale, increased sabotage, and other undesirable consequences
c. they have positive effects on productivity, especially when incentives are linked to performance.
c. they have positive effects on productivity, especially when incentives are linked to performance.
Explcit memory is believed to be mediated by the:
a. basal ganglia, ventral thalamus, and premotor cortex
b. cingulate, ventral thalamus, and frontal lobes
c. hippocampus, medial thalamus, and prefrontal cortex
c. hippocampus, medial thalamus, and prefrontal cortex.
The hippocampus, medial thalamus, and prefrontal cortex are believed to mediate _____ memory.
explicit memory
The basal ganglia, ventral thalamus, and premotor cortex mediate ____ memory.
implicit
Path analysis is useful for:
a. examining the unidirectional relationships among a set of measured and latent traits
b. examining the bidirectional relationships among a set of measured and latent traits
c. examining the unidirectional causal relationships among a set of measured traits
c. examining the unidirectional causal relationships among a set of measured traits
Dementia and depression both involve cognitive deficits. However, in comparison to dementia, depression:
a. is more likely to involve impaired free recall while recognition memory is left relatively intact
b. is more likely to involve impaired declarative memory while procedureal memory is left relatively intact
c. is more likely to involve impaired nonverbal memory than verbal memory
a. is more likely to involve impaired free recall while recognition memory is left relatively intact
When conducting a factor analysis, an oblique rotation is preferred when:
a, more than two factors have been extracted
b. the underlying traits are believed to be dependent
c. the assumption of homoscedasticity has been violated
d. the number of factors is equal to teh number of tests
b. the underlying traits are believed to be dependent - oblique means correlated or dependent; orthogonal means uncorrelated or independent
Backwards conditioning occurs when:
a. a previously reinforced response is no longer reinforced
b. acquisition of a bx chain begins with the last response and gradually works toward the first response
c. the unconditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented before the conditioned stimulus
c. the unconditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented before the conditioned stimulus - use the term backwards conditioning with classical conditioning - when the US is presented before the CS, this is the wrong way to establish a conditioned response... duh
The research has consistently found that, in comparison to whites, AA are more likely to be diagnoses as:
a. schizo
Job rotation challenges the notion that:
a. on the job training is the only way to achieve adequate transfer of training
b. mastery of basic skills must always precede mastery of more complex skills
c. workers will be most productive when the job matches their particular talents and interests
d. jobs that provide greater individual challenge and responsibility lead to greater satisfaction and better performance.
c. workers will be most productive when the job matches their particular talents and interests - job rotation is based on the assumption that workers can perform many different kinds of tasks
In organizations, peer evaluations:
a. are more susceptible to rater biases than supervisor evaluations
b. are less valid as predictors of future performance than supervisor evals
c. are considered more desirable than supervisor evals by employees
d. are similar in terms of reliability and validity to supervisor evals
d. are similar in terms of reliability and validity to supervisor evals
As a tx for mania, the anticonculsant carbamazepine:
a. ahs a slower onset of action than lithium
b. does not require plasma blood level monitoring
d. may be more effective than lithium for dysphoric mania
d. may be more effective than lithium for dysphoric mania
Functional amnesia is characterized by:
a. retrograde amnesia
b. amnesia for autobiographical information
c. impaired implicit memory
b. amnesia for autobiographical information
Based on the existing research, the optimal tx for PTSD is:
a. EMDR
b. prlonged exposure
c. stress inoculation training
d. prolonged exposure plus stress inoculation training
b. prolonged exposure
A PET scan of the brain of a patient dix as schizo would be most useful for:
a. obtaining a record of electrical cactivity in the cerebral cortex
b. assessing blood flow in the frontal lobes
c. distinguishing between schizo subtypes
b. assessing blod flow in the frontal lobes - the PET provides info about the metabolic and chemical activities of the brain such as cerebral blood flow
Magical thinking in children is associated with:
a. egocentrism
b. presymbolic thought
c. decentration
a. egocentrism - preoperational stage of cognitive development - inability to view the world from diff vantage points
During the third week of prenatal development, which of the following is most vulenrable to the effects of a teratogen?
a. eyes
b. arms and legs
c. heart
d. central nervous system
d. central nervous sytem - the CNS is vulnerable from the beginning of the third week, while the heart becomes vulnerable in the middle of the third week.
Thomas and Chess's goodness of fit model addresses compatibility between
a. a child's termperament and her parents' caretaking practices
b. a child's develomental level and environmental demands
c. an employee's personality and her company's culture
a. a child's temperament and her parents' caretaking practices -
Statistically, selection bias is determined by comparing:
a. the predictor means of different groups
b. the criterion means and variances of different groups
c. the regression line slopes of different groups
c. the regression line slopes in different groups
_____ is occurring when a test has different levels of predictive validity for different groups.
Selection bias
Statistically, this is determined by comparing the _____ for the two groups to see if there is a difference in their slopes and/or the ___/
regression lines; Y-intercept
Research comparing beliefs about the cause of memory problems amond older and younger adults suggests that:
a. younger adults are much more likely than older adults to attribute memory impairments in the elderly to a lack of effort or other controllable factor
b. older adults are more likely to attribute memory impairments in the elderly to the effects of aging, while younger adults are more likely to attribute memory impairments in the elderly to a lack of effort or other controllable factor
c. younger and older adults are both much more likely to attribute memory impairments in the elderly to the effects of aging than to controllable factors.
c. younger and older adults are both much more likely to attribute memory impairments in the elderly to the effects of aging than to controllable factors.
At the end of the first year:
a. children's babbling begins to narrow to the sounds of their native languages
b. children begin to commit errors of overextension and underextension
c. children begin to realize that certain sounds can get their parents attention and help
d. children start putting two words together to make a sentence
c. children begin to realize that certain sounds can get their parent's attention and help
Callers to a suicide helpline are most often:
a. young white females
b. middle aged while males
c. young aa males
a. young white females
Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is least likely to:
a. inc libido
b. alleviate vaginal dryness
c. elevate mood
d. decrease the risk for osteoporosis
a. increase libido
A shortcoming of most curriculum-based suicide prevention programs for adolescents is that:
a. they are based on a stress model of suicide
b. they are based on a mental illness model of suicide
c. they tend to minimize the extent of the problem
a. they are based on a stress model of suicide - try to redice stigmatization of suicide by attributing it to stressful life events rather than (more correctly) to mental illness
A client of yours has recently filed a suit against her employer for sex discrimination. U receive a subpoena from the employer's attorney requesting you to appear at a deposition and to bring the client's file. when you contact the client, she tells you she doesn't want you to provide any info about the things she talked about in therapy. Your best courseof action is to:
a. provide the requested info since privilege is waive in this situation
b. appear at the deposition as requested but refuse to provide info about the woman
d. discuss the situation with the employer's attorney befoer the date of the deposition
d. Certainly, a psycho could assert the privilege at a deposition but a better initial step would be to contact the employer's attorney to discuss the possibility of withdrawing the request for information (or limited the kind of info that is required before the deposition)
Based on the psychotherapy outcome research, your best estimate of the percentage of therapy clients showing measurable improvement at the end of therapy is:
a. 25%
b. 45%
c. 60%
d. 75%
d. 75%
In comparison to American families as a whole, Americans of Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino descent
a. have higher divorce rates
b. have lower divorce rates
c. have higher divorce rates and more families with a female head
d. have lower divorce rates and fewer families with a female head.
d. have lower divorce rates and fewer families with a female head
From a Freudian perspective, phobias are a means of reducing anxiety stemming from an unresolved conflict. Freud explained Little hans's fear of horses, for instance, as due to an unresolved conflict that had its origins in the
a. genital stage
b. phallic stage
c. analy stage
d. oral stage
b. phallic stage - fear of horses as displacement of anxiety stemming from an unresolved Oedipus conflict
A transactional leader emphasizes:
a. rules and regulations
b. common goals
c. individual responsibility and decision-making
d. changing her style to fit the sit
a. rules and regulations
______ leaders empower employees, raise their consciousness, and suggessfull guide them through organizational change.
transformational
Older adults are likely to have more probs than young adults on tasks involving which type of memory?
a. remote
b. primary
c. explicit
d. semantic
c. explicit - deliverate memory
As the result of long-term use of an antipsychotic, some patients develop tardive dyskinesia. This side effect
a. is irreversible in nearly 90% cases
b. is alleviated by administering L-dopa
c. decreases gradually in many patients when the drug is discontinued
c. decreases gradually in many patient when the drug is discontinued - may be irreversible for about 50% of patients - increasing the dose of an antipsychotic can temporarily suppress TD, but the symptoms usu return
Locke and Latham's goal-setting theory foccuses primarily on:
a. ability and effort
b. perceived effort and performance
c. expectations and effort
d. intentions and effort
d. intentions and effort - they intend to achieve their goals are are willing to put the effort to do so
Research using a "dismantling strategy" suggests that the most critical component of systematic desensitization is:
a. counterconditioning
b. gradual exposure
c. classical extinction
d. operant extinction
c. classical extinction - repeated exposure to the CS without presence of the US is responsible for its positive effects
A _____ strategy involves comparing the various components of a tx.
dismantling strategy
From the perspective of operant conditioning, depression is the result of
a. a prolonged extinction schedule
b. repeated exposure to noncontingent punishment
c. response generalization
d. a lack of stimulus discrimination
a. a prolonged extinction schedule - the depressed person has had little or no access to reinforcement
Central to an understanding of work-family conflict are the notionf of
a. involvement and boundary permeability
b. individuation and responnsibility
c. instrumentality and rewards
d. costs and benefits
a. involvement and boundary permeability - the extent of involvement in work and family roles and the degree to which boundaries between work and family roles are permeable
A current trend in the field of personnel management is using selection techniques that ensure a good "person-organization fit." The research suggests that a good fit:
a. has positive effects on individual satisfaction, commitment and productivity as well as significant long-term benefits at the organizational level
b. has positive effects on individual satisfaction, commitment and productivity but may have negative long-term effects at the organizational level
c.
b. has positive effects on individual satisfaction, commitment and productivity but may have negative long-term effects at the organizational level
Delayed recall of specific events is usually first evident when children are ____ months of age.
a. 10
b. 13
c. 16
d. 19
b. 13 - children as young as 11 mos have accurate immediate recall for specific events, and that, by 13 mos, they have accurate delayed recall.
Studies investigating the effects of maternal employment and child academic achievement suggest:
a. maternal employment is generally associated with improved achievment for all children
b. children whose mothers want to be employed but stay at home have the lowest levels of achievement
c. children whose mothers want to be employed but stay at home have the lowest levels of achievement
Some of the atypical antispychotics such as clozapine are believed to exert their effects by restoring the balance between:
a. dopamine and acetylcholine
b. epinephrine and norepinephrine
c. dopamine and norepinephrine
d. glutamate and GABA
c. dopamine and norepinephrine
An elderly man who is just out of surgery is at highest risk for:
a. delirium
b. dementia
c. amnesia
a. delirium
7yo Billy is easily distracted, is always on the go, talks excessively and often interrupts while someone else is talking, squirms in his seat in class, etc.
a. Combined Type
b. Predominantly Hyperactive Type
c. Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
c. Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
A new group being led by Dr. Domato includes members from a variety of cultural backgrounds. Dr. Domato should:
a. treat group members as individuals and not assume that culture is relevant to their probs
b. help heach member determine whether or not cultural biases and racism are contributing to their probs
b. help each member determine whether or not cultural biases and racism are contributing to their probs - APA's guidelines
Irvin Yalom concludes that, unless careful selection criteria are used the majority of group therapy patients may drop out of therapy discouraged and without benefit. He also proposes that the most important criterion for deciding who to include in group therapy is:
a. willingness to learn from others
b. motivation
d. psycho mindedness
c. motivation
When internal validity is threatened by initial group differences, this threat is called _____.
selection
Threats of retaliation for aggressive bx:
a. almost always increase aggression
b. almost always decrease aggression
c. are more likely to deter aggression when the retaliator has high status or power
c.
Research on biogenic theories of autism:
d. has confirmed that biological and genetic factors are the primary cause although no single factor seems to be responsibile for the majority of cases
Xandria's idea on how to solve a prob is at odds with how members of her team want to proceed. Research on minority influence suggests that Xandria will be most successful in convincing her fellow team members to see things her way if she:
introduces her solution and then firmly sticks to it
Asian-American students often outperform their non-Asian peers on various measures of academic achievement. REsearch suggests that the best predictor of higher achievment in Asian-Americans is:
a. estimate of ability
b. fear of academic failure
c. self-efficacy beliefs
d. effort beliefs
b. fear of academic failure
Which of the following techniques would not be useful for controlling or assessing the effects of an extraneous variable?
a. stratified random sampling
b. blocking
c. matching
d. ANCOVA
a. stratified random sampling - involves dividing a population of intrest into sub-populations/strata and obtaining random samples from each strata. The technique is designed to ensure that subjects are representative of the populatio of interest.
Blocking, matching, and the ANCOVA are all used to control for the effects of an ______ .
extraneous variable
A man who has always had trouble speaking in front of people wants to speak at his brother's wedding, but he is afraid that, if he does, he will have a panic attack in front of everyone. In this case, the most likely dx would be:
a. agoraphobia
b. simple phobia
c. social phobia
d. avoidant personality disorder
c. social phobia - the only fear we know is one of public speaking
Agoraphobia must have a hx of ___.
Panic Disorder
The fear in Agoraphobia is related to being in a place where _____
help would not be available if a symptom develops
In Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia, the panic attacts are _____ and _____.
unexpected and not triggered by such situations
A man is paralyzed from the waist down. With regard to his sexual performance, which is most likely?
a. he can have an erection and ejaculate
b. he can neither have an erection nor ejaculate
c. he can have an erection but cannot ejaculate
d. he can ejaculate but cannot have an erection
c. he can have an erection but cannot ejaculate - ejaculation is more vulnerable to the effects of spinal cord injury - only a minority will be able to ejaculate
A mo brings her 18mo old child in for psycho testing. She's concerned because the baby is not walking or talking yet. What should you do first?
a. refer the mo to a physician to test the child's vision and hearing
b. reassure the mo that her child's develope is proceeding at a normal rate
a. refer the child to a physician to test vision and hearing - by the age of 18 mos, a child should be walking and at least saying a few words.... you'd want to first rule out physical/sensory deficits before concluding retardation
Which of the following are all possible causes of a Mood Disorder caused by a known organic factor (substance use or medical condition)?
a. hypothyroidism, broken bones, and barb use
b. cataracts, ulcer, and PCP use
d. carcinoma of the pancrease, hallucinogen use, and viral illness
d. carcinoma of the pancreas, hallucinogen use, and viral illness
An employee at a company has a bad reputation for showing up late and being unmotivated. On a likert-type scale analyzing work performance, his supervisor rates him low in all areas. This is an example of
a. the Hawthorne effect
b. the strictntess bias
c. the halo effect
c. the halo effect
From a large population, you take two random samples and measure them on one dependent variable. In this case, you would expect the F-ratio to be close to:
a. 0.0
b. 0.50
c. 2.50
d. 1.0
d. 1.0 - 1 is the expected value of the F ratio under the null hypothesis, or the hypothesis that two or more samples do not differ on some dependent variable measure.
The null is rejected when F is significantly ______ than
____.
greater than 1
An F ratio of 1 suggests that the means being compared were drawn from the ____-.
same population
Which of the following procedures involves identifying the underlying structure in a set of variables?
a. mult regression
b. factor analysis
c. canonical correlation
d. discriminant analysis
b. factor analysis -
What are the minimum and maximum values of the standard error of measurement?
a. 0 and the standard deviation of test scores
b. 0 and 1
c. 1 and the standard deviation of test scores
d. -1 and 1
a. 0 and the standard deviation of test scores
The minimum and maximum values of the reliability coefficient are:
0 and 1.0 respectively
Which of the following do most psychos report is the primary source of stress arising from their work?
a. lack of therapeutic success
a. yeah
Which of the following is most true about the results of research investigating the effects of tv viewing on children?
Lower SES children watch more tv as compared to higher SES children
Research has shown that children as young as _____ can correctly distinguish between TV programming and commercials.
3-4
All of the following are assumptions of the regresion equation, except
a. a linear relationship exists between X and Y
b. the variability of Y scores is equal throughout the range of X scores
c. one can predict scores on Y on the basis of scores on X
d. changes in the level of X cause changes in the level of Y
d. The X and Y variables are correlated, but a correlation between two variables does not always mean that they are causally related
In treating a patient with Dissociative Identity Disorder, the first thing a cognitive therapist would do is:
a. set tx goals
b. label the maladaptive beliefs that cause or contribute to the patient's probs maintaining a coherent sense of identity
c. be supportive and try to establish a therapeutic alliance
c. be supportive and try to establish a therapeutic alliance
A patient reports that he is criticized by his coworkers for failing to do his job properly. He can't understand why they're complaining, esp because he feels he is being given too much work and everybody else is to blame for the organization's probs. On the basis of this info, the most likely dx for this individual would be:
a. Borderline
b. Passive-Aggressive
b. Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder
In conducting a program evaluation, your first step would be to:
a. conduct a needs analysis
b. conduct a job analysis
c. define the objectives of theprogram
c. define the objectives of the program