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37 Cards in this Set

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Which parasitic mites have zoonotic potential?
-Scabies (both Sarcoptes Scabiei var. canis and Notedres cati)
-Cheyletiella
Describe several diagnostic techniques that could be used to diagnose Cheyletiellosis.
-Visualization of parasite:
-Larger than sarcoptes
-Prominent mouth hooks
-Visualization of eggs:
-Small and attached to hairs by fine strands
-Methods of parasite visualization:
-Direct examination of “walking dandruff” (w/ naked eye or hand lens)
-Superficial skin scrape
-Acetate tape preparation
-Fecal floatation
-Flea combing
-Vacuum tests
Which parasitic mite have a reputation of causing extreme prurititis?
-Scabies (both canine and feline)
What is the pathogenesis of canine generalized demodecosis?
-Disease only occurs when mites are able to proliferate out of control
-Dysfunction of T-lymphocytes
-Hereditary predisposition (spay and neuter to prevent passing along unwanted traits)
-Immune suppression
What are the clinical features of canine generalized demodecosis?
-NO standardized number of lesions is set to distinguish between localized and generalized
-Must know how to differentiate the two b/c it affects treatment
Rule of thumb:
->12 lesions or
-Involvement of entire body region or
-Involvement of two or more feet
Variable presentation:
-Pododemodicosis
-Very painful
-Often resistant to therapy
-Squamos form is the initial form
-Pusutular (bacterial) is the progression from squamos
-Bacterial folliculitis => furunculosis =>deep pyoderma
-Cellulitis => sepsis => death
Adult Onset:
-Usually have an underlying immunosuppressive disorder: relapsed juvenile form, iatrogenic cushings, natural cushings, DM, hypothyroidism, lymphoma, other neoplasia
What is the treatment for canine generalized demodecosis?
-6-8 weeks of antibiotics
-Clavamox and Cephalosporin are good empirical options if there is no culture and sensitivity
-Weekly Benzoyl peroxide shampoo
-Identify and resolve the underlying disease
-Acaricidals:
-Amitraz dips
-Ivermectin
-Milbemycin
-Clinical cure will be achieved before parasitological cure
-Patients must be treated until 2 negative skin scrapes , 2-4 weeks apart
-Scrape the same area and record the number of mites each time
What is the prognosis of canine generalized demodecosis?
-Good
-90% respond well w/ treatment (still a risk of relapse)
-Can be an extremely severe disease
-Long length (min. 4 month) of treatment and cost
What is the pathogenesis of canine localized demodecosis?
-Disease only occurs when mites are able to proliferate out of control
-Dysfunction of T-lymphocytes
-Hereditary predisposition (spay and neuter to prevent passing along unwanted traits)
-Immune suppression
What are the clinical features of canine localized demodecosis?
a.k.a. Juvenile Onset:
-<18 months of age
-Single to multiple (less than 6 lesions) of erythematous patches of alopecia
-Found on face and forelegs
What is the treatment for canine localized demodecosis?
-Often a self-limiting disease
-Watchful neglect
-Benzoyl peroxide
-Follicular flushing action and anti-bacterial
-Recommend spay/neuter
-Decline treatment for show and breeding dogs
-Monitor monthly w/ skin scraping to ensure no progression
What is the prognosis for canine localized demodecosis?
Good
What are the clinical features of generalized Demodex cati?
Even more rare than localized
-Siamese and Burmese are at risk
-Usually has an underlying condition (FIV, FeLV, DM, Bowen’s disease, neoplasia)
What is the treatment for generalized Demodex cati?
-Generally much easier than canine treatment
-Manage pyoderma
-Lime sulfur dip
-Ivermectin
What is the prognosis of generalized Demodex cati?
Good
What are the clinical features of localized Demodex cati?
Rare condition
-Eyelids, neck, head, periocular
-Differential for feline acne
-Usually responsive to lime sulfur or other mild parasiticides
-Often self-limiting
What is the treatment for localized Demodex cati?
-Generally much easier than canine treatment
-Manage pyoderma
-Lime sulfur dip
-Ivermectin
What is the prognosis of localized Demodex cati?
Good
Where do Demodex canis mites colonize in the skin?
Colonize the hair follicle and occasionally the sebaceous gland
Describe the type of skin scraping that you would do to find Demodex.
Must do a deep skin scraping to find them (scrape until capillary bleeding)
What are the clinical features (types of lesions and distribution) of Sarcoptes scabiei var canis in dog?
-Mite has predilection for sparsely haired areas:
-Ears, elbow, hocks
-Found predominatly ventrally distributed:
-Abdomen, chest, legs
-Initial primary lesion is erythematous papule +/- white, yellow crust
-Chronicity and self-excoriation can lead to:
-Alopecia
-Thickened skin
-Extensive crusting
How do you evaluate the treatment response of a dog w/ generalized demodicosis?
-Evaluate based on the results of skin scrapings (looking for 2 negative skin scrapes 2-4 weeks apart)
-Watch for signs of toxicity on some of the drugs (i.e. Amitraz (mitaban) dip)
-If unable to achieve resolution, recommend long-term maintenance therapy:
-Oral ivermectin (2 days/week) –OR- Monthly amitraz dips
Which mite is the walking dandruff mite and how would you treat an animal infected w/ it?
-Cheyletiella
Treatment:
-Treat all contact animals for min. 4wks
-Treat environment (pyrethrin spray)
-Keratolytic shampoo
-Topical therapy (Lime sulfur dip, mitaban dip, paramite)
-Avermectins are effective
-Fipronil (frontline)
In which disease is the use of corticosteroids contraindicated and why?
-Demodex (animals are already immunocompromised esp. w/ the adult onset)
How does a fecal floatation help you identify mange mites?
-Some animals may excessively groom and ingest the mites and pass them in their feces
What are the side effects and contraindications to the use of Amitraz?
-Toxicity
-Hypoglycemia
-Don’t use in small dogs (at very high risk for toxicity)
-Don’t save the bottle (potency and toxicity increase when exposed to oxygen)
-Can interact w/ other drugs and potentiate its toxicity:
-Hydroxyzine (Atarax)
-Behavioral drugs (Prozac)
-Sedatives (Diazepam, Acepromazine)
-MAO inhibitors (problem in humans)
What are the side effects and contraindications to the use of Ivermectin?
-Toxicity
-Hypersaliviation
-Mydriasis
-Lethargy
-Ataxia
-Tremors
-Coma
-Death
Which mite may be extremely difficult to find?
-Canine sarcoptes (a negative scrape does not rule out a diagnosis)
What are some Differential diagnoses for Canine Demodicosis?
Bacteria pyoderma
Dermatophytosis
Muzzle folliculitis & furunculosis
Canine impetigo
Abrasions
Contact dermatitis
Pemphigus diseases
Lupus erythmatosus
Facial lesions of dermatomyositis
How would you treat Sarcoptic mange?
-Treat all contact animals
-Environmental management
-Clip if using dip
-Keratolytic shampoo
-Miticidal therapy : topical and systemic
-Corticosteriods (animal may get itchier after starting treatmet)
-Treat for 2 life cycles (6 weeks)
-Lime-sulfur dips (6 weekly dips)
Topical therapy:
-Paramite
-Organophosphate (watch for toxicity related problems)
-Resistance occurs
-Amitraz
-Potential for toxicity
-Dip q. 2 weeks for 3 treatments
Systemic therapy:
-Selamectin (Revolution)
-Only FDA approved therapy for sarcoptes
-Spot on therapy
-2 applications q. 30d,
-Wide safety of margin (even in collies)
-Ivermectin
-Watch for signs of toxicity (avoid in collies)
-q. 7 days if PO and q.14 days of SQ
-Milbemycin
-Easy to use
-q. 7 days for 6 weeks
-Safer to use (even in susceptible breeds)
What is the pinnal-pedal reflex, and which mite is this associated with?
Pinnal-Pedal Reflex = scratch the ear and the rear leg starts scratching
-Seen w/ canine sarcoptes
What are the three common species of Cheletiella mites?
1. C. yasguri (dogs)
2. C. blakei (cats)
3. C. parasitivorax (rabbits)
Why does demodicosis develop in some dogs and not in other (even among litermates)?
-It is part of the normal flora of canine hair follicle
-Animals who develop demodicosis are immunosuppressed, predisposed genetically, or have dysfunctioning T lymphocytes
What are the two major species of feline Demodex mites?
Demodex cati
Demodex gatoi
What is the clinical presentation for localized and generalized Demodex cati infestations?
LOCALIZED FOLLICULAR DEMODICOSIS:
-Rare condition
-Eyelids, neck, head, periocular
-Differential for feline acne
-Usually responsive to lime sulfur or other mild parasiticides
-Often self-limiting
GENERALIZED:
-Even more rare than localized
-Siamese and Burmese are at risk
-Usually has an underlying condition (FIV, FeLV, DM, Bowen’s disease, neoplasia)
What are some characteristics of Demodex gatoi?
-Short bodied
-Found in the stratum corneum
-Contagious
-Pruritic
-Hairs don't epilate easily
What is the distribution of Demodex gatoi lesions?
-Head, neck, elbow
What are the signs of Demodex gatoi infestations?
-Alopecia
-Scale, erythema
-Excessive grooming
-More puritic than D. cati