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20 Cards in this Set

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Fossil
Q: T/F: Fossils show that forms of organisms appeared, lasted long periods of time, and then disappeared.
A: True

Theories
Q: Who proposed that similar species descended from a common ancestor, and that acquired traits were passed on to offspring?
A: French scientist Jean Baptiste de Lamarck

Evidence
Q: Does evolution ever stop?
A: No

Equilibrium
Q: T/F: The study of evolution from a genetic point of view is called population genetics.
A: True

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: A violation of the conditions of what can result in evolution?
A: The Hardy-Weinberg Genetic Equilibrium

Speciation
Q: Have all the species of animals on Earth been discovered?
A: No
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Fossil
Q: T/F: Fossil evidence shows that life is in constant change.
A: True.

Theories
Q: What is an acquired trait?
A: A trait that arises during organism’s lifetime due to its experiences or behavior and is not determined by genes.

Evidence
Q: Name several examples of evidence of evolution.
A: Homologous features, vestigial structures, analogous features, similarities in embryology, similarities in macromolecules.

Equilibrium
Q: A population consists of a collection of individual of the same species that can ___.
A: Interbreed

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: Genetic equilibrium required that which frequencies to not change: a) allele or b) phenotype.
A: a) allele

Speciation
Q: What is the process of species formation called?
A: Speciation
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Fossil
Q: What is a fossil?
A: A trace of a long-dead organism.

Theories
Q: T/F: Acquired traits are passed on to offspring.
A: False

Evidence
Q: What are homologous features?
A: Similar features that originated in a shared ancestor and have similar functions and skeletal structure.

Equilibrium
Q: A graph of the frequency of observable traits in organisms may look like what kind of curve? a) gondola, b) wind chime, c) glockenspiel, d) bell
A: d) bell

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: Substances that cause mutations are called: a) cancerous, b) transformagens, c) mutaceous, d) mutagens.
A: d) mutagens

Speciation
Q: T/F: Existing species are essentially changed versions of younger species.
A: False, existing species are essentially changed versions of older species.
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Fossil
Q: What is sediment?
A: Dust, sand, or mud deposited by wind or water.

Theories
Q: Name both scientists who proposed the theory of natural selection.
B: Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace

Evidence
Q: Give an example of a homologous feature.
A: Bird wings and human arms, etc.

Equilibrium
Q: Give an example of a trait that can make a bell curve graph.
A: Human height, human birth weight, fish size, etc.

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: T/F: Beneficial mutations are a vital part of evolution.
A: True

Speciation
Q: In the morphological concept of species, a species is defined according to its: a) structure and appearance, b) eating habits, c) genetic code, d) habitat.
A: a) structure and appearance
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Fossil
Q: What types of materials develop into fossils?
A: Hard body parts like shell, bones, teeth, or woody stems of plants.

Theories
Q: In natural selection, organisms best suited to their environment a) reproduce less successfully, b) reproduce more successfully, c) die off, or d) colonize the Dutch East Indies.
A: b) reproduce more successfully

Evidence
Q: Homologous features in different species indicate that those species a) are identical, b) shared a recent common ancestor, c) are not related, or d) are fish.
A: b) shared a recent common ancestor

Equilibrium
Q: Name one environmental factor that can influence variations in genotype.
A: The amount or quality of food available, weather, etc.

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: What is the difference between emigration and immigration?
A: Emigration is movement of individuals out of a population while immigration is movement of individuals into a population.

Speciation
Q: What are the internal and external structure and appearance of an organism called?
A: Morphology
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Fossil
Q: Name two types of fossils.
A: Molds and casts.

Theories
Q: Give an example of an adaptation and how it is useful to an organism.
A: Anything, really.

Evidence
Q: Features that serve identical functions and look somewhat alike, but have very different embryological development and may be very different in internal anatomy are called ___.
A: Analogous features

Equilibrium
Q: Name one process that can result in genotypic variation.
A: Mutation, recombination, random fusion of gametes

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: The process of genes moving from one population to another is called: a) gene flow, b) gene wave, c) allele movement, d) allele shift.
A: a) gene flow

Speciation
Q: Name one problem with the morphological concept of species.
A: Any of the following: phenotypic differences among individuals in a single population can occur, some organisms that appear different enough to belong to different species interbreed in the wild and produce fertile offspring, etc.
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Fossil
Q: What is a mold?
A: An imprint in a rock in the shape of an organism.

Theories
Q: What is the name of Darwin’s book on evolution?
A: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or The Origin of Species

Evidence
Q: Are vestigial features useful to an organism that possesses them?
A: No

Equilibrium
Q: What is a gene pool?
A: The total genetic information available in a population.

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: In a hypothetical population, random events cause one allele to disappear completely, leaving all the organisms homozygous for the remaining allele. What are the dangers of this situation?
A: The population is in danger of becoming extinct because there is no variation for natural selection to act on, so a new disease could wipe out the entire population.

Speciation
Q: What does the biological species concept define a species as?
A: A population of organisms that can successfully interbreed but cannot breed with other groups.
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Fossil
Q: What is a cast?
A: A rocklike model or organism, formed when molds are filled with hard minerals.

Theories
Q: What was the name of Darwin’s ship: a) the Mayflower, b) the Titanic, c) the H.M.S. Beagle, or d) the Walter Scott?
A: c) the H.M.S. Beagle

Evidence
Q: T/F: A vestigial feature in a modern organism is evidence that the structure was functional in some ancestor of the modern organism.
A: True

Equilibrium
Q: There are two forms of a hypothetical allele, A and a, in a set of 10 gametes. Half the gametes in the set carry the A allele. What is the allele frequency of the A allele?
A: 0.5 or 50%

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: The phenomenon by which allele frequencies in a population change as a result of random events is called: a) genetic flow, b) genetic drift, c) genetic shift, d) gene pool.
A: b) genetic drift

Speciation
Q: Can the biological species concept be used to determine the species of extinct animals?
A: No, since the reproductive compatibility of dead animals can’t be tested.
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Fossil
Q: Give an example of a fossil.
A: Carbon tracings of ferns, animal tracks, stone tools, etc.

Theories
Q: While stationed at the Galapagos Islands, what animals did Darwin study?
A: Various species of finches

Evidence
Q: Give an example of a vestigial feature.
A: Human tailbone, human appendix, whale pelvic bones, etc.

Equilibrium
Q: What is the formula for determining allele frequency?
A: The number of a certain allele divided by the total number of alleles of all types in the population.

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: Due to nonrandom mating, individuals may begin to choose their mates based on a similarity of characteristics. What is this called?
A: Assortative mating.

Speciation
Q: T/F: The modern definition of a species combines aspects of both the morphological and biological species concepts.
A: True
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Fossil
Q: T/F: Scientists initially thought that fossils were naturally occurring part of rocks.
A: True

Theories
Q: What conclusion did Darwin draw from the Galapagos birds?
A: Darwin concluded that the birds shared a recent common ancestor, meaning they descended from a single species.

Evidence
Q: T/F: Similarities in early embryonic stages of vertebrates can be taken as indication that vertebrates do not share common ancestry.
A: False

Equilibrium
Q: Freebie!
A: Yay for you!

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: Name two types of natural selection.
A: Any two: stabilizing selection, directional selection, disruptive selection, sexual selection.

Speciation
Q: What is a species?
A: A group of organisms that are morphologically similar and can interbreed to produce fully fertile offspring.
-
Fossil
Q: Who concluded that fossils are remains of plants and animals?
A: Robert Hooke

Theories
Q: T/F: The theory of descent with modification states that the newer forms or organisms are the modified descendants of older species.
A: True

Evidence
Q: The number of amino acid differences in two species is proportional to the length of time that has passed since the species shared a) a common ancestor, b) dinner, c) test answers, d) a moonlit stroll.
A: a) a common ancestor

Equilibrium
Q: There are ten lizards in a population. All ten are green. What is the phenotypic ratio of the blue lizards?
A: 0

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: What is stabilizing selection?
A: A type of natural selection in which the average form of a trait causes an organism to have an advantage in reproduction.

Speciation
Q: Name both types of isolation that can cause speciation.
A: Geographic isolation and reproductive isolation.
-
Fossil
Q: Who proposed the law of superposition?
A: Nicolaus Steno

Theories
Q: Similar organisms arise in ___ geographic locations.
A: Similar

Evidence
Q: Name a pattern of evolution.
A: Coevolution, convergent evolution, divergent evolution.

Equilibrium
Q: What does random fusion of gametes mean?
A: A “game of chance” played by individual gametes, since there are hundreds of millions of sperm involved in a mating. The one that actually fertilizes an egg is largely a matter of chance, so the gametes really do fuse randomly.

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: Give an example of stabilizing selection.
A: Anything, really. Ex. A hypothetical lizard: larger individuals are easily spotted, smaller individuals aren’t able to run fast enough to avoid predators.

Speciation
Q: The physical separation of members of a population is called: a) geomorphism, b) a barrier, c) geographic isolation, d) habitat differentiation.
A: c) geographic isolation
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Fossil
Q: What is the law of superposition?
A: A theory that states successive layers of rock were deposited on top of one another and the lowest layer in a cross section of Earth is the oldest, while the highest is the most recent.

Theories
Q: Who published a thesis pointing out that populations have the potential to increase, but are limited by adverse conditions?
A: English clergyman Thomas Malthus

Evidence
Q: What is coevolution?
A: A change of two or more species in close association with each other.

Equilibrium
Q: Does a gene pool include the genetic material of infertile individuals?
A: No, it does not because these individuals can’t reproduce and pass their genes on.

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: T/F: In stabilizing selection, the average represents the optimum for most traits; extreme forms of most traits are selcted against.
A: True

Speciation
Q: An earthquake causes a population of llamas to be split into two groups, separated by a deep gorge. What can you predict will happen?
A: The two groups will have formed into two separate species.
-
Fossil
Q: What can you say about the age of fossils that are in the same stratum?
A: They are of the same approximate age.

Theories
Q: Darwin noted that although populations of all organisms have the potential to grow unchecked, most a) do or b) do not.
A: b) do not

Evidence
Q: Give an example of coevolution.
A: Flowers that have coevolved with bats to be light in color and have fruity odor that attracts the bats.

Equilibrium
Q: If a homozygous dominant bee mates with a homozygous recessive bee, what will the phenotypic ration of their heterozygous offspring be, assuming that they have four offspring?
A: 1 or 100%

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: Individuals that display a more extreme form of a trait have greater fitness than individuals with an average form of a trait in a) stabilizing selection, b) directional selection, c) disruptive selection, or d) sexual selection.
A: b) directional selection

Speciation
Q: Name an example of geographic isolation.
A: Almost anything: new canyon, river, mountain range, earthquake, etc.
-
Fossil
Q: Which is the actual age of a fossil in years: its relative age or its absolute age?
A: Absolute age

Theories
Q: Organisms that have a greater number of favorable traits leave a) less offspring, b) more offspring, c) the same number of offspring as organisms with fewer beneficial traits.
A: b) more offspring

Evidence
Q: What is convergent evolution?
A: The process by which unrelated species become more similar as they adapt to the same kind of environment.

Equilibrium
Q: What is phenotype frequency?
A: The number of individuals with a particular phenotype divided by the total number of individuals in the population.

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: Give an example of directional selection.
A: Can be almost anything. Ex. tongue length in anteaters: anteaters with long tongues can more effectively prey on termites.

Speciation
Q: Name one type of reproductive isolation.
A: Prezygotic isolation or postzygotic isolation.
-
Fossil
Q: What is the term for the disappearance of a species?
A: Extinction

Theories
Q: Populations of organisms ___ to their environment as their proportion of genes for favorable traits increases.
A: Adapt

Evidence
Q: Give an example of coevolution.
A: Streamlined bodies and fins of most fish, even dolphins and sharks.

Equilibrium
Q: Who created the concept of Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium?
A: German physician Wilhelm Weinberg

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: What is disruptive selection?
A: A type of natural selection in which individuals with two extreme forms of a trait have an advantage.

Speciation
Q: T/F: Prezygotic isolation occurs after fertilization.
A: False, prezygotic isolation occurs before fertilization.
-
Fossil
Q: Give an example of an extinct organism.
A: Dinosaur (various), dodo, ammonite, etc.

Theories
Q: What is a single organism’s genetic contribution to the next generation?
A: Fitness

Evidence
Q: What is divergent evolution?
A: The process of two or more related species becoming more and more dissimilar.

Equilibrium
Q: What does the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium state?
A: Allele frequencies in a population tend to remain the same from generation to generation unless acted on by outside influences.

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: Give an example of disruptive selection.
A: Can be many things. Ex. barnacles: light barnacles are not visible on sand, dark barnacles are not visible on rocks, intermediate barnacles are visible against both the white and dark backgrounds.

Speciation
Q: Give an example of prezygotic isolation.
A: Many exist. Ex. a mating call that is not recognized as such by a potential mate, differences in mating times, etc.
-
Fossil
Q: Name one possible reason for mass extinctions.
A: Drastic environmental changes, meteors, volcanic activity, Jesus, etc.

Theories
Q: Do organisms purposefully acquire traits that they need based on the demands of the environment?
A: No

Evidence
Q: T/F: In adaptive radiation, many related species evolve from a single ancestral species.
A: True

Equilibrium
Q: Name two of the five assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium.
A: Two of the following: no net mutations occur, individuals neither enter nor leave the population, the population is large, individuals mate randomly, selection does not occur.

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: What is sexual selection?
A: The preferential choice of a mate based on a specific phenotypic trait.

Speciation
Q: T/F: Once successful mating is prevented between members of the two subpopulations, the effect is the same as what would have occurred if the two subpopulations had been geographically isolated.
A: True
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Fossil
Q: What is the study of the geographical distribution of fossils and of living organisms: a) paelogeography, b) science, c) distribography, or d) biogeography?
A: d) biogeography

Theories
Q: Favorable traits give the organisms that have them a/an ___ advantage.
A: Adaptive

Evidence
Q: In artificial selection, the process of divergence can be artificially a) slowed down or b) sped up.
A: b) sped up

Equilibrium
Q: Can true genetic equilibrium exist?
A: No, it is purely theoretical.

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: T/F: Sexual selection is based on visible traits.
A: True

Speciation
Q: What are two rates of species formation?
A: Gradual equilibrium and punctuated equilibrium.
-
Fossil
Q: T/F: Giant kangaroos used to live in Australia.
A: True

Theories
Q: If environmental changes are extreme, will populations always adapt quickly enough to survive?
A: No

Evidence
Q: Give an example of artificial selection.
A: Dogs bred by humans for certain phenotypic characteristics, resulting in different breeds with different traits.

Equilibrium
Q: Why can’t genetic equilibrium exist?
A: Real populations may violate conditions necessary for genetic equilibrium.

Disruption of Equilibrium
Q: T/F: In sexual selection, males tend to increase their chances of being selected by a female by emphasizing their extreme traits, like plumage or color.
A: True

Speciation
Q: T/F: Speciation occurs smoothly and gradually.
A: False, speciation occurs during brief periods of rapid genetic change.
-