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39 Cards in this Set

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A teacher finds out that if she yells at a disruptive boy in class, he will calm down for a few minutes. Over time, her yelling becomes louder and more frequent. Which of the following statements best describes, in behavioral terms, what is happening in this situation?

a. The teacher's yelling is serving as positive reinforcement for the boy, which is why he is becoming more and more disruptive over time.

b. The teacher's yelling is serving as positive punishment, but the boy is becoming habituated over time.

c. The teacher's yelling is probably serving as negative punishment for her, because she likely finds the situation to be aversive; however, it is serving as positive punishment for the boy, because he seems to enjoy being yelled at.

d. The teacher's yelling is serving as positive reinforcement for herself, as she seems to enjoy yelling.
b. In behavioral terms, the term "positive" means that a stimulus is applied (not, as implied by choice C, that the stimulus is pleasurable or enjoyable). In this case, the stimulus being applied is the teacher's yelling. And punishment means that the stimulus has the effect of reducing a behavior. In this case, the yelling has the effect of temporarily reducing the boy's disruptiveness, so it is punishment. The question illustrates a disadvantage of punishment -- the recipient becomes habituated (which just means he or she gets used to it) and it is necessary to keep increasing the intensity of the punishment for it to be effective.
According to the research findings of Patterson and his colleagues, parents of aggressive children typically use discipline which is:

a. consistent, but accompanied by humiliating verbal messages

b. consistent, but often followed by affection which sends mixed messages to the child

c. inconsistent, and often not associated with the child's behavior

d. inconsistent, but which particularly ignores the child's aggressive behaviors.
c. Patterson found that parents of aggressive children often use harsh physical punishment which is applied inconsistently and often not connected to the child's behavior. Contrary to choice D, these parents tend to reinforce aggressive behavior in their children with attention or approval
do as i say, not as i do
Delirium may occur due to intoxication with all of the following substances except

a. cannabis
b. caffeine
c. LSD
d. Cocaine
Hallucinogens (e.g., LSD), cocaine, and cannabis -- as well as alcohol, amphetamines, inhalants, opioids, PCP, and sedatives -- may produce Intoxication Delirium. Caffeine, however, does not cause delirium.
An advantage of using a MANOVA over multiple one-way ANOVAs is that:

a. the use of a MANOVA reduces the experiment-wise error rate.
b. a MANOVA can be used when the study involves more than one dependent variable.
c. a MANOVA is the more appropriate test when the researcher has an a priori hypotheses about the nature of the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
d. a MANOVA involves simpler mathematical calculations.
When a study involves two or more dependent variables, data can be analyzed with either multiple (one for each dependent variable) statistical tests (e.g., multiple one-way ANOVAs) or one MANOVA. An advantage of the latter technique is that it reduces the probability that at least one Type I error (incorrect rejection of the null hypothesis) will be made. This is because the fewer statistical tests one conducts, the less likely it is that a Type I error will occur. In an experiment that involves more than one comparison, the probability of at least one Type I error is referred to as the experiment-wise error rate.
Compared to decentralized networks, centralized networks:
a. are less effective but more accepted by employees.
b. are more effective when the task is complex.
c. are more effective when the task is easy.
d. are more effective and more accepted by employees.
In a centralized communication network, all communication goes through one person (usually the person in charge). This type of network is most effective when the problem or task is easy; i.e., it does not require a lot of communication among workers to be resolved or accomplished. We can rule out A and D not only because these networks are not automatically more or less effective than decentralized networks (again, it depends on the nature of the task), but also because it is usually the leader, not the employees, who prefers a centralized network.
Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy shows promise in the treatment of borderline patients. It involves a combination of treatment modalities that include:
a. inpatient therapy.
b. social skills training.
c. family therapy.
d. psychotropic medication.
Herbert Simon's decision-making model suggests that decision makers:
a. consider all alternatives and then pick the best one.
b. consider alternatives only until they find one that seems acceptable.
c. consider only those alternatives that have a 50% or better chance of success.
d. rely more on their affective than cognitive reactions when choosing an alternative.
To answer this question, you have to have the name Herbert Simon linked with the bounded rationality (administrative) model of decision making, which proposes that decision makers are not always completely rational in making choices. Instead, time and resources limit their consideration of alternatives, so they tend to consider alternatives only until a satisfactory one is identified.
Wernicke’s, Broca’s and conduction aphasia share which of the following difficulties?
a. repeating what is said
b. word prosody
c. reception
d. expression
Difficulty repeating words just spoken and recalling the name of familiar objects are characteristic of all three disorders. Conduction aphasia is due to damage to the nerve fibers that connect Broca’s to Wernicke’s area and the most typical result is difficulty repeating what one has heard. Wernicke’s, or receptive aphasia, primarily affects comprehension which results in impairment in spoken and written language, and anomia or problems recalling words. Broca’s aphasia is characterized by difficulty expressing language, including difficulty repeating what is said.
Which of the following contradicts the predictions of Herzberg's two-factor theory?
a. Workers say the same work-related factors cause satisfaction and dissatisfaction with work.
b. Workers say they prefer leaders who show a high level of both instrumentality and consideration.
c. Job satisfaction and job performance have a reciprocal relationship.
d. Job enrichment increases satisfaction for both blue- and white-collar workers.
As long as you remembered that Herzberg views satisfaction and dissatisfaction as separate phenomena, you should have been able to pick the right answer to this question. According to Herzberg, the factors that cause dissatisfaction (hygiene factors) are different from those that contribute to satisfaction (motivator factors), which means that a person can be satisfied and dissatisfied at the same time.
Communication-interaction therapy espouses that communication has both a "report" function and a
a. Principle of equifinality
b. Command function
c. Circular model of causality.
d. Paradoxical strategy
Family therapists from the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto such as Gregory Bateson, Virginia Satir, and Jay Haley described communication as having a "report function" that contains the content or informational aspect of the communication, and the "command function", that is often conveyed nonverbally and exemplifies the relationship between the communicators. The other choices are other concepts from the Mental Research Institute. "Principles of equifinality" refers to the idea that no matter where the system change occurs, the end result is the same. "Circular model of causality" is a concept in their approach that describes a symptom as both a cause and an effect of dysfunctional communication patterns. "Paradoxical strategies" include prescribing the symptom and relabeling, or changing the label a family attaches to a problem in order to change the meaning.
Depth perception in infants develops in which of the following sequences?
kinetic, binocular, pictorial
Which of the following is an application of negative punishment?
a. D.R.O.
b. overcorrection
c. Premack Principle
d. time-out
Negative punishment is used to decrease a behavior by taking away a stimulus. In time-out, undesirable behaviors are reduced by taking away opportunities for positive reinforcement for a specified period of time.
If a job selection test has lower validity for Hispanics as compared to White or African-Americans, you could say that ethnicity is acting as a:
a. confounding variable
b. criterion contaminator
c. discriminant variable
d. moderator variable
A moderator variable is any variable which moderates, or influences, the relationship between two other variables. If the validity of a job selection test is different for different ethnic groups (i.e. there is differential validity), then ethnicity would be considered a moderator variable since it is influencing the relationship between the test (predictor) and actual job performance (the criterion). A confounding variable (A) is a variable in a research study which is not of interest to the researcher, but which exerts a systematic effect on the DV. Criterion contamination (B) is the artificial inflation of validity which can occur when raters subjectively score ratees on a criterion measure after they have been informed how the ratees scored on the predictor.
According to research on parenting styles, which of the following describes the parents who are most likely to raise very aggressive children?
a. attentive parents who are very controlling of their children's behavior.
b. parents who use frequent and intermittent violence and are very controlling of their children's behavior.
c. loving parents with a laissez-faire attitude toward their children's behavior.
d. parents who use frequent and intermittent violence and have a laissez-faire attitude toward their children's behavior.
Journal reviewers who show strong bias against manuscripts that report results contrary to their theoretical perspective are demonstrating:
a. self-serving bias
b. confirmatory bias
c. fundamental attribution bias
d. self verification theory
"Confirmatory bias" or "confirmation bias" is the tendency to seek, interpret, and create information that verifies our existing beliefs. Self-serving bias (A) is the tendency to attribute one's successes to internal factors and one's failures to external factors. The fundamental attribution bias or error (C) refers to the tendency to overestimate dispositional (personality) factors and underestimate situational factors in explaining a person's behavior. Self verification theory (D) proposes that people seek confirmation of their self-concept
You are trying to recall the facts surrounding a mugging you recently witnessed. According to the notion of state dependence, your recall of these facts will be best if you are in the same __________ when you recall the crime as you were at the time you witnessed it.
emotional state
Coding Personality Disorders on a separate axis, according to the DSM-IV-TR, is due to:
The need to reduce the possibility of being overlooked.
Research comparing the relationship between age and therapy outcome has produced mixed results. However, in their most recent meta-analysis of the research, Weisz and his colleagues (1995) found:
a. no relationship between age and outcome.
b. that therapy is more beneficial for children and adolescents than adults.
c. that therapy is more beneficial for children than adolescents, especially among girls.
d. that therapy is more beneficial for adolescents than children, especially among girls.
Earlier meta-analyses of the outcome studies for children and adolescents found either no difference for adolescents and children or a slight superiority for children. In contrast, the more recent Weisz et al. meta-analysis found that therapy has better outcomes for adolescents than children, especially female adolescents and when the counselor is a professional or student (versus paraprofessional). Note that Weisz et al. didn't compare outcomes for children and adolescents to outcomes for adults, but other meta-analyses suggest that adults do somewhat better.
You receive a subpoena for a current client's therapy records from a process server hired by the court. This means that you must:
a. inform the server that you cannot comply with the subpoena because therapy records are privileged.
b. tell the server to wait while you make a copy of the records.
c. appear at a designated place and time with a copy of the records.
d. leave a copy of the records at the courthouse within 48 hours.
A subpoena to produce records or documents (known as a subpoena duces tecum) requires a person to appear at a designated time and place with a copy of the records. It does not necessarily require the person to release those records; this is a matter for the court to decide, following a hearing on privilege, if the issue of privilege is being contested. If your client has waived the privilege, however, you would release the records to the court at the time of your appearance
An MRI of a patient in the early stages of Huntington's disease would indicate:
a. no abnormalities.
b. overactivity in the temporal lobes.
c. reduced volume of the basal ganglia.
d. reduced volume of the ventricles
To answer this question, you need to know that Huntington's disease is due to degeneration in several areas of the brain including the basal ganglia and that damage can often be detected by an MRI or other brain imaging technique even before the person exhibits symptoms.
Hypnosis involves three factors:
According to Hales, Yudofsky and Talbott, (1944), hypnosis involves three factors, 1) absorption, whereby the individual is completely engrossed in a central experience, 2) dissociation, whereby the ordinary functioning of consciousness and memory are altered in some way and 3) suggestibility, whereby individuals have a tendency to be less inhibited and restricted while in the trance-like state.
In the context of expectancy theory, instrumentality refers to:
C. Expectancy theory is based on the premise that motivation is a cognitive process involving three variables: expectancy, instrumentality and valence. Expectancy refers to the belief that effort will lead to success performance. Instrumentality refers to the beliefs that successful performance will result in certain outcomes; the value placed on the outcomes of performance is referred to as valence.
a. the willingness of a worker to exert effort.
b. the likelihood of effort leading to performance.
c. the likelihood of performance leading to certain outcomes.
d. the value of the outcomes of performance.
Which of the following stages in Erikson's theory of psychosocial development corresponds to Freud's latency stage?
a. trust versus mistrust
b. autonomy versus shame
c. initiative versus guilt
d. industry versus inferiority
Erikson's industry vs. inferiority stage occurs approximately between the ages of 6-11. Freud's latency stage occurs at about the same time.
Jerome and Jamal have significant problems with their peers. However, while Jerome is rejected by his classmates, Jamal is neglected. If Jerome and Jamal change schools, which of the following is most likely to happen?
a. Jerome may be better accepted by his new classmates but Jamal will continue to be neglected.
b. Jamal may be better accepted by his new classmates but Jerome will continue to be rejected.
c. Jerome and Jamal will both be better accepted by their new classmates.
d. Jerome and Jamal will both continue to have the same peer problems they had in their old school.
Studies looking at the outcomes for rejected and neglected children have found that rejection is more stable than neglect. For example, when rejected and neglected change schools, neglected children may experience improvements in their peer status, while rejected children continue to be rejected by the new peer group.
If one were to apply the confluence model to predict the intellectual and achievement scores of children, the most accurate prediction would be that:
a. middle children would show the highest score when compared to both earlier and later born children.
b. children from small families would score the highest.
c. only-borns would be the highest scoring group.
d. later borns would be the highest scoring group.
The confluence model states simply that each succeeding child has less of the family's resources available to him or her. The first child doesn't have to share with anyone. The next child shares with one older sibling. The next child must share with two older siblings. The theory has been tested and found to predict accurately: Only-borns and children from small families tend to, on the average, do better on measures of intellect and achievement than later borns. Note that the choice about only-borns having the highest intelligence is a better answer than the choice about children from a small family. This is because, from the perspective of the confluence model, only-borns have even more of the family's resources available to them than children from a small family.
Primary memory is the same as
short term memory
Which of the following is true regarding Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)?
a. Both OCD and OCPD are characterized by the presence of true obsessions and/or compulsions.
b. Unlike OCD, OCPD involves a preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control.
c. Obsessions and compulsions are less severe in OCPD.
d. Unlike OCPD, the DSM-IV-TR criteria for OCD requires onset of symptoms before age 18.
Only Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) requires the presence of obsessions and/or compulsions. The diagnosis "Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder" (OCPD) is somewhat of a misnomer in that it is not characterized by either obsessions or compulsions. Rather, OCPD involves a preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control. Contrary to Choice "D," there are no age requirements for either diagnosis.
At the request of an attorney, a psychologist in a rural community agrees to conduct a psychological evaluation and provide treatment for the same person. This would probably be considered:
As a general rule, psychologists should avoid potentially conflicting relationships, which could result when conducting both an evaluation and treatment for a patient. However, according to APA's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists (1991), "When it is necessary to provide both evaluation and treatment services to a party in a legal proceeding (as may be the case in small forensic hospital settings or small communities), the forensic psychologist takes reasonable steps to minimize the potential negative effects of these circumstances on the rights of the party, confidentiality, and the process of treatment and evaluation." [Law and Human Behavior, 15 (6), p.659].
A number of books in the popular press have been written regarding the relationship between psychological factors and cancer. Which of the following statements best reflects the outcome of scientific studies of this issue?
a. Psychological factors are related both to the onset of cancer and the success of recovery from it.
b. Psychological factors are related to the onset of cancer but not to the success of recovery from it.
c. Psychological factors are not related to the onset of cancer but are related to the success of recovery from it.
d. Psychological factors are related to neither the onset of cancer nor the success of recovery from it.
A number of theories regarding the relationship between psychological factors and the onset of cancer have been proposed. For instance, some authors have proposed that the "Type C" personality, typically described as a cooperative, unassertive patient who suppresses anger and complies with external authorities, is at a higher risk for cancer. However, most research shows that psychological factors and stressful events have a small or no effect on cancer incidence. By contrast, psychological factors do appear to be related to recovery from cancer. For instance, psychological treatments combining support and training in self-hypnosis are associated with higher survival rates and improved quality of life in cancer patients.
The type of racism exemplified by the lack of quality health care, delivery of substandard health care services and unavailability of preventive health services in minority communities is:
Institutional Racism:
Institutional racism refers to restriction or denial of material conditions and access to power to members of minority groups. Personally mediated racism (b.) refers to prejudice and discrimination at the individual level. Internalized racism (c.) refers to acceptance of negative messages about the abilities and intrinsic worth by members of the stigmatized races. Subtle racism (d.) refers to the beliefs, attitudes, and actions of individuals (rather than institutions) and is a less obvious form of racism, which has been proposed to have replaced overt or “old-fashioned” prejudice and discrimination.
Use of benzodiazepines is associated with a “rebound effect.” If an individual is experiencing “rebound anxiety,” this refers to:
an increase in severity of anxiety temporarily following the discontinuation of the drug.

The "rebound effect” occurs when a benzodiazepine is discontinued and wears off. The symptoms come back stronger and the initial symptoms are magnified. When the medication is stopped, individuals can experience withdrawal symptoms as well as experience a "rebound" or resurgence of the feelings or condition the drug was originally managing. Essentially, the body/brain reacts to the drug by trying to overcome its effect, and once the drug is stopped that overreaction continues for awhile until it "gets through" to the body/brain that there is no longer a chemical to fight against. The symptoms lessen as the body readjusts to life without the chemicals. This "rebound effect” is also common for other conditions and drugs, such as rebound sinus congestion after frequent use of nasally inhaled decongestants or rebound headaches after a long-term course of painkillers for someone suffering from chronic headaches.
The best predictor of treatment outcome among adult substance abusers is:
Severity of sub abx problems.

Most studies have found that the best predictors of treatment outcome for substance abusers are psychiatric severity and problem severity. Other predictive factors include motivation and coping skills at baseline (J. R. McKay & R. V. Weiss, A review of temporal effects and outcome predictors in substance abuse treatment studies with long-term follow-ups: Preliminary results and methodological issues. Evaluation Review, 2001, 25(2), 113-161).
The effects of parental discipline on the development of conscience in toddlers is mediated by the toddlers' level of:

Research by Kochanska (1997) has indicated that toddlers' level of fearfulness mediates the effects of parental discipline. Specifically, the use of "gentle discipline" was found more effective for the development of conscience among fearful toddlers than among fearless toddlers. Fearless toddlers, on the other hand, developed conscience better through the use of a secure mother-child attachment. It should be noted that these results were primarily found during the toddler years and were not significant or were less significant when reassessed during preschool years [Multiple pathways to conscience for children with different temperaments: From toddlerhood to age 5, Developmental Psychology, 33(2), 228-240].
a. fearfulness
b. intelligence
c. activity level
d. pain threshold
The incidence of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder begins to differ for males and females at which age:
a. 3 years
b. 6 years
c. 12 years
d. 18 years
b. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder has an earlier peak onset for males than females. For males the peak onset is between ages 6 and 15, and for females it is between ages 20 and 29. Thus, gender differences for OCD begin to become apparent at 6 years. However, in adulthood the incidence is about the same for both genders.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of Western culture-bound values?
a. cause-effect approach
b. openness and intimacy
c. clear distinction between mental and physical well-being
d. strict adherence to a schedule
D. Sue and Sue (1999) described three premises from the Western perspectives of counseling, based on the assumption of individualism, that can have an effect on the therapeutic relationship. They are identified as class-bound values, culture-bound values and language variables. Class-bound values include valuing of time boundaries or a strict adherence to time schedules, an ambiguous and unstructured approach to problem solving, and the emphasis on long- range goals and solutions. Culture-bound values focus on individualism versus collectivism, cause and effect relationships for client problems (a.), emphasis on emotional/verbal expressiveness, active participation and openness to discussing intimate aspects of the client’s life (b.), and the separation of physical and mental well-being (c.). Language variables are those in which standard English and verbal communication are stressed.
A kappa coefficient of .93 would indicate that the two tests
have a high degree of agreement between their raters.

The kappa coefficient is used to evaluate inter-rater reliability. A coefficient in the lower .90s indicates high reliability. Answer A is a layman's definition of the general concept of valdity.
Which of the following correlation coefficients is used to assess convergent validity:
a. heterotrait-monomethod
b. monotrait-heteromethod
c. heterotrait-heteromethod
d. monotrait-monomethod
The response choices make up a multitrait-multimethod matrix, a complicated method for assessing convergent and discriminant validity. Convergent validity requires that different ways of measuring the same trait yield the same result. Monotrait-heteromethod coefficients are correlations between two measures that assess the same trait using different methods; therefore if a test has convergent validity, this correlation should be high. Heterotrait-monomethod and heterotrait-heteromethod both confirm discriminatory validity, and monotrait-monomethod coefficients are reliability coefficients.
To testify as an "expert witness" in a court case, you must
There are no special certifications that psychologists must obtain in order to testify as expert witness. Nor do they need to be recognized by both parties in the legal proceeding as an expert -- in fact, in a substantial proportion of cases, the psychologist's expertise is likely to be challenged by one of the parties. From an ethical standpoint, the relevant requirement is that psychologists testifying as experts (like all other psychologists) should not practice outside the scope of their competence. In other words, psychologists representing themselves as experts in a particular area should have specialized knowledge in that area.
A student who is aware of the serial position effect, should pay more attention to material presented at what time in the lesson?
The serial position effect refers to the tendency to best recall the first (primacy effect) and last (recency effect) items studied. Thus, a student who is aware of this phenomenon should pay more attention to the material studied during the middle of a study session, since that material is most likely to be forgotten.