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166 Cards in this Set

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“The reason your older son is failing school is that he doesn’t want to get ahead of his slower brother.” Such a statement is an example of:
A positive connotation
Structuralists claim that dysfunctional families require
A change in the covert rules that govern family transactions
A family begins therapy. The therapist relies primarily on Minuchin’s structural approach to family therapy and would therefore be expected to do what?
Join the family system and accommodate to its style
Members of enmeshed families run the risk of over-emphasizing:
Family belongingness
Labeling an anorectic’s refusal to eat as “stubborn” rather than “sick” is an example of:
Reframing
Tom Sawyer’s effort to convince his friends that the drudgery of whitewashing a fence is a privilege is an example of:
Relabeling
Which of the models of family therapy is concerned with assessing a family’s transactional patterns, power hierarchies, boundaries, and flexibility?
Structural
An adolescent girl and her parents agree, after a series of family therapy sessions, that they will not argue anymore. This is an example of a:
First Order Change
Invariant prescriptions refer to:
Single sustained interventions directed at unchanging collusive parent-child patterns
What describes structural therapeutic tactics?
Joining, Accommodating, Restructuring
The Brief Therapy PRoject at the Mental Research Institute bases its approach for the most part on:
Strategic Family Therapy
Haley, Jackson, Erickson & Watzlawik would not be inclined to state:
“Let’s examine your fear and see if it has any rational basis”
Communication theorists such as the MRI group believe:
Family Rules govern family transactions
A primary therapeutic goal for structuralists is:
Organization Change
As used by the Milan group, hypotheses are intended to convey:
A different view than one they hold.
Asking the family who enjoys fighting the most, or who would miss it most if fighting ceased, is an example of:
Neutrality
What school of thought believes that dysfunction is a result of attempted solutions that have become the problem with individuals/family involved in a vicious cycle of mishandled attempts to solve the problem as they engage in “more of the same”
MRI
Some feminists are critical of Minuchin’s emphasis on family hierarchies because they believe:
It reinforces sexual stereotypes
The major characteristic of strategic family therapy is that the therapist:
Plans a strategy for solving the presenting problems
Three techniques introduced by the Milan systemic therapists:
Positive connotation, Rituals, Counterparadox
The focus of experiential family therapy is:
the here and now
Brief therapy advocates attempt to change a family system rather than help the family make changes within the existing system. This objective calls for:
Second Order Changes
By neutrality, the Milan therapist attempts to:
Remain connected to the family while avoiding getting caught in coalitions.
One objective of structural interventions is for the psychosomatic family to achieve:
Clearer boundaries
“Prescribing the symptom” is a form of
Therapeutic Double Bind
What is consistent with the structural viewpoint?
Family members relate according to certain arrangements which govern their interactions; Family transaction patterns offer clues regarding the family organization; A family in difficulty is operating within a dysfunctional structure
Many early family therapists:
Saw men and women as having equal power.
Circular questioning is a hypothesis-generating technique whereby all family members are asked:
To comment, individually, on how each views the same event
A person who might find himself punished for correct perceptions and be called mad or bad for pointing out discrepancies between what he does see and what he should see may be in a
Double Bind
Strategic therapists tend to be
Active and take charge
Milan systemic and strategic therapists are similar in that
Both focus on positive and negative feedback loops
The clarity of boundaries between subsystems helps ensure stability, according to:
Structural Therapists
What family therapy is this statement true in: Actin precedes understanding
Structural Family Therapy
Paradoxical tasks, given by the strategic therapist, are:
Expected to be resisted
In strategic family therapy, a therapist would do what when using a “restraining strategy”?
Warn the family of the negative consequences of behavioral change
According to Whitaker, the beginning task in therapy is one that the therapist must win. This task is called:
Battle for structure
Feminist-informed therapists are especially critical of:
The view that feeling is less mature than thinking
What is a positive connotation a form of?
Reframing
Bowne’s theoretical notion of family ego mass is similar to Minuchin’s concept of:
Enmeshment
A major consequence of adopting a communications viewpoint is to recast problems as:
Interactional, ongoing and currently occurring and situational
Two distinguishing characteristics of the original Milan approach are the spacing of sessions and...
A team of therapists
One purpose in asking mother and father to change chairs, in the case of the shy and withdrawn teenage girl was to...
Bring father into the picture as an involved parent.
A concept shared by Satir and Bown is:
Maturation
Generally speaking, experiential therapists:
provide a nonrational therapeutic experience
Experiential therapists are especially critical of:
Intellectualization
Which therapeutic technique is frequently employed by a symbolic-experiential therapists?
Co-therapy
According to Whitaker, the battle for initiative must:
Come from the family
According to Boszormenyi-Nagy, a ledger can be described as:
Keeping track of what is owed you and what you owe others in a family system
A double-bind situation calls for:
An ongoing relationship involving at least two people; Contradictory injunctions; An inability to escape the situation
Defending against anxiety by externalizing unwanted parts of oneself onto others is called:
Projection
Who is generally considered the “father” of general systems theory?
Ludwig von Bertalanffy
Ken Hardy describes family systems therapy as being all but which of the following?
Linear
The higher the degree of family fusion, the more likely:
That triangulating will occur; that poorly differentiated members will be drawn into tense situations; the family insistence on togetherness
When a marital relationship becomes unsatisfactory, the wife may seek emotional companionship and support from her child. When she does this, the husband is “let off the emotional hook.” This situation is best described as:
Triangulation
Object relations theorists believe the infant’s need for what influences the development of the self?
Attachment
Family debts and obligations are emphasized by:
Boszormenyi-Nagy
The elements of a system are delineated by its...
Boundaries
The opposite of self-differentiation, in Bowen’s view is:
Fusion
For Bowen, “triangles” form in families in order to...
Re-establish homeostasis
According to systems theory, the external environment
Can have a positive effect on a family
An interactive process in which a Person A perceives Person B as containing unwanted elements of A’s personality which in turn evokes certain behaviors and feelings from B that conform to those perceptions i:
Projective identification
According to Bowen, the basic building block in a family’s emotional system is the:
Triangle
A Bowenian therapist would most likely use a genogram in order to:
Help the clients understand multigenerational transmission processes
The concept of an “undifferentiated family ego mass” as used by Murray Bowen results from
Triangles within a family system
According to general systems theory, families have several important properties, including:
Families have a history and a function of their own, beyond the identities of their members, families are subject to entropy, families react toward the restoration of the status quo in the event of any change.
The “undifferentiated family ego mass” refers to:
Family symbiotic relationships
An example of object relations therapist:
A woman, whose father was absent from her childhood, has the expectation that her life partner will take care of all her emotional needs.
In Bowen’s Differentiation of Self Scale, people at the low end are apt to lead lives
Dominated by the feelings of those around them
A consequence of parental fusion, according to Bowen, is not:
Chronic marital conflict; A psychologically damaged child; Physical illness in a spouse
Boszormenyi-Nagy’s therapeutic approach calls attention to family:
Relational ethics
Object Relations family therapy does what?
Analyses dreams and fantasies, explores family histories, and seeks to provide insight
What terms would be used by followers of Boszormenyi-Nagy approach?
Family loyalties, Projective systems
Emotional cutoff, according to Bowen, is:
A flight from unresolved emotional ties to one’s family
A supervisee arguing with a supervisor’s suggestions about how to work with a father and son who frequently argue is an example of:
Isomorphism
A systems perspective
Stresses wholeness or unity
Transgenerational approaches are:
Historical
Major goals of family therapy:
Educating and modeling, Myth dispelling, Strengthening the Marriage
According to the concept of the family life cycle, which stages are the most stressful?
The family with young children and the launching and moving on
According to Beavers, low-functioning families:
Are usually too closed to outside influences
A warm-up period may be used to engage a client. What is a warm-up period?
It can be particularly useful when working with adolescents, it involved small talk, it may be used when a client is culturally different from the therapist
What facilitates rapport?
Moderate levels of self-disclosure, admitting your mistakes, and responding to a client’s nonverbal messages
An open-ended question defines...
A topic area
What is true about empathetic responding?
It conveys understanding of the client’s emotional state, it may be conveyed verbally or nonverbally, it conveys understanding of feelings a client has directly expressed
What is true about therapist self disclosure
Self-involving statements are more effective than those involving information about a therapists own problems; Moderate levels of therapist self-disclosure are most effective; Therapists should wait for rapport to develop before self-disclosing
Paraphrasing primarily
Reflects a therapist’s awareness of the cognitive aspects of what the client has said
Which of the following methods of collecting information about a client tends to be less accurate:
the client’s verbal report
Your new client asks whether you have any children. Your best response would likely be to:
Explore her motivation for asking this question
What are parts of a biophysical assessment?
Substance use, Dress and grooming, Medical exam
What are appropriate reasons for recontracting with a client?
The client has not had an opportunity to work on a significant issue, The client is nearing a breakthrough and might benefit from additional intervention, The client requests a few more sessions
When a therapist ties together several ideas expressed by a client, he/she is using
summarization
Murray Bowen’s perspective primarily focuses on:
Individuation of family members, especially the parents
Family therapy is most easily defined by:
The therapists interest in and allegiance o the family and its relationship issues
Who would most likely take an extensive family history?
Bowen
What are the major goals of family therapists?
Differentiation/Individuation, Improving communication, Establishing more functional family behavioral interactions
A double-bind is:
a paradox
Satir finds when treating dysfunctional families that:
the communication contains frequent double messages
In doing therapy with a family, you are becoming aware that a husband frequently beats his wife and child. An initial action would be:
Develop an alternative locaiton for the child and mother to reside until the father becomes less violent
The main value of Sager and Kaplan’s conceptualization of the marriage contract is that....
it offers a way of understanding a couple’s interaction and a focus for therapeutic intervention at the appropriate level - it analyses marital transactions in terms of congruence or conflict
The marriage contract, as presented by Sager and Kaplan, proposes what levels?
#1 conscious verbalized; #2 conscious but not verbalized; #3 beyond awareness
According to Lidz, a marriage characterized by severe and chronic discord, disequilibrium, threats of separation, power struggles, and resistances represents an example of...
marital schism
When treating a family, Bown would not...
Join the family system to produce change
The therapist who worked extensively with minority and low income families is:
Salvador Minuchin
Dysfunctional families, according to Satir, deal with the fear of being left out by forming:
Family triangles
T/F regarding family therapy: Unlike traditional psychoanalysis, it disregards the notion of transference in therapy, viewing it as strictly an individual phenomenon, and therefore, not relevant to family treatment.
FALSE
T/F regarding family therapy: It views family dysfunction as a result of the intrapsychic conflicts, within individual family members.
TRUE
T/F regarding family therapy:It attempts to modify the personalities of individual family members
TRUE
T/F regarding family therapy: Interpretations are usually limited to immediate and observable interactions between family members
TRUE
When treating a family and a member is in a double-bind situation in which the family issues a primary injunction, a secondary injunction, and a teritary injunction, therapists from the Palo Alto Group would not allow the family:
to utilize paradoxical communication
In behavioral therapy, negative reinforcement involves:
Withdrawal of a stimulus contingent on the performance of a behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior
Jay Haley defines a symptom as:
A behavior whose primary purpose is to influence someone else and is defined by the identified patient as beyond his control
According to Satir, a family whose members always agree with the others in family consulation, regardless of emotions, is playing...
lethal games
Satir’s model of dysfunctional communication styles suggests:
Placaters discount their own feelings, distractors discount everyone else’s
Who would use techniques such as family sculpting or psychodrama?
Bowen
From a systems approach, if an alcoholic stops drinking, his family most typically would
exert pressures on him, which promote the continuation of his alcoholism
Wholeness
Every part of a system is so related to its fellow parts that a change in one part will cause a change in fellow parts and thus the total system
As symmetrical relationships, defined by Watzlawick, move toward pathology, they tend to...
escalate
A family has ceased being symptomatic in the way it was at the beginning of therapy, but is not symptomatic in a different way. This is referred to as...
First Order Change
The primary goal of strategic family therapy may best be defined as
resolving the family’s current problem as efficiently and quickly as possible
According to Satir, “pot level” refers to
one’s self-esteem level
The following are true about structural family therapy:
It may address short-term goals, it views the family as a system, it stresses the notion of “boundaries” that determine the amount of contact allowed between family members
Mimesis may be defined as:
A therapeutic technique used by therapists to join with a family
The concept of “therapeutic paradox” as described by Jay Haley is that:
The client will resist no matter what the therapist does
Enmeshment...
--is charactreized by diffuse psychological boundaries between family members; -- results in a lack of differentiation; -- results in a loss of autonomy
What are true statements about homeostasis?
--the family naturally attempts to incorporate all change agents into the system including the therapist; --is maintained by negative feedback; --restoration of the status quo is not always unhealthful
According to Minuchin, the process of structural family therapy involves three overlapping steps. What are these steps?
--Joining the family; --Restructuring the family; --Evaluating transactional patterns, subsystems, and boundaries in a family
The following statements are characteristic of which type of communication pattern: Wife: You want me to work too hard; Husband: I don’t ask you to work any harder than I do myself; Wife: I enjoy working, but I don’t like being told what to do.
Symmetrical
According to communication theorists, when clients are silent...
they are still communicating
In assessing family problems, an MFT would be least likely to:
Refer to DSM-IV
According to Beavers, low-functioning families:
Are usually too closed to outside influences, and therefore entropy leads their system into greater disorder
When it is unable to reduce anxiety through rational, logical methods, the ego relies on _________ to deal with feelings of anxiety.
Defense mechanisms
The use of community education as a helping technique would be most emphasized by a therapist relying on which therapeutic models:
Alderian
Successful outcome in Freudian psychoanalysis can be said to be the result of the following four processes:
-clarification; -confrontation; -interpretation; -working through
According to TA, when a transaction is “crossed”:
An unexpected response is received
The psychosexual sstage of development during which sexual energy is sublimated is...
latency
A client says she is crying because her boyfriend has left her. A Rogerian therapist in this situation, would be most likely to:
Sit quietly and be with her.
Which therapies are based on operant conditioning?
--positive reinforcement; --token economy; --time-out
According to the principles underlying rational emotive therapy, a statement beginning with “I should” is likely to be a reflection of the individual’s:
irrational beliefs
Rogers’ three “facilitative conditions” are
--accurate empathy; --unconditional positive regard; --congruence
A man whose old girlfriend used Chanel perfume gets into an elevator with a woman who is wearing Chanel. He suddenly finds himself becoming aroused. This is an example of:
Classical Conditioning
According to Luborsky, Singer, and Luborsky, there is some evidence that behavioral therapy is more effective than other therapist for:
Phobic disorders, sexual problems, and compulsions
A woman who feels threatened by her sexual desires becomes an active participant in an anti-pornography group. According to Freud, what defense mechanism is the woman using?
Reaction formation
A client of a gestalt therapist can expect that his or her therapist will emphasize what as a major goal of therapy?
Awareness
A primary goal of transactional analysis is to help the client become a mature, healthy individual. In terms of the three ego states considered to be central parts of the personality by TA theorists, the healthy individual...
Relies on all three ego states in an integrated appropriate manner
The theory underlying rational emotive therapy may be expressed in terms of an “A-B-C” model, where “B” refers to the individual’s:
beliefs
Generally, Jungian analysis rely a great deal on the client’s...
Reports of dreams and fantasies
A client of a Jungian therapist can expect that the major goal of therapy is....
individuation
___________ Psychologists view personality as being shaped more by the environment than by internal instincts and emphasize the importance of the ego in personality development.
Social Interest; Birth Order; Style of Life
A client-centered therapist would be most likely to use which technique?
Neo-Freudian
A woman calls you seeking individual therapy. She alludes to many fears and an overall impending sense of doom. If you had to diagnose her, it would most likely be:
Reflection
Axis II is for...
Panic Disorder
Your male client tells you that, for the past twenty years, he has secretly tried on woman’s clothing. He goes on to explain that this is sexually arousing to him. He denies any homosexual tendencies. The most likely diagnosis would be:
Personality DIsorders, Borderline Intellectual Functioning and Mental Retardation
Cognitive behavioral therapy would be least effective with which of the following disorders?
Transvestic Fetishism
Major Depression, PTSD, Paranoid Shizophrenia, Dysthymic Disorder
Paranoid Schizophrenia
A client tells you that lately, she has been feeling dizzy and nauseated, and has been having skin irritations. She tells you that she is allergic to salted peanuts, but she has been eating bags of them anyways. Most likely diagnosis?
Factitious Disorder
A man avoids going to weddings, parties and other social events because these situations have consistently triggered a panic attack in the past. Most likely diagnosis?
Social Phobia
What is the primary purpose of a mental status examination?
To determine a client’s current level of functioning and rule out severe psychopathy
A young woman exhibits cycles of overidealization and devaluation in personal relationships, uncertainty about career plans, reckless driving, drug use, and frequent suicide attempts. Most likely diagnosis?
Borderline Personality Disorder
If you were interested in assessing a child’s perspective of her relationship to others in her family, you would want to do the following test:
Kinetic Family Drawing
Magical thinking, depression, illusions, discomfort in social situations, and inappropriate affect are most characteristic of:
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
Your client describes a ten year history of cocaine abuse. He tells you that, in recent months, he has been using the drug three or four times a week, he’s been missing work, and he is experiencing gastrointestinal discomfort and chronic headaches. The best course of treatment would be:
medical evaluation, 12 step meeting, individual therapy
Compulsions: (a) are performed to reduce distress (b) are experienced as ego-syntonic (c) involve non-functional behaviors (d) are logically related to a specific goal
a. are performed to reduce distress
A diagnosis of Biopolar II Disorder requires a history of:
Hypomanic and Major Depressive Episodes
How would you distinguish between an “organic” mental disorder and a “functional” mental disorder?
An organic mental disorder has a known etiology
The key disturbance in delirium is:
reduced clarity in awareness of the environment
For a diagnosis of Substance Dependence:
There must be evidence of clinically significant impairment or distress
During the first session with an American Indian Family, a White-Anglo counselor would be best advised to:
Assess each family member’s level of acculturation before developing a treatment plan.