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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe the features of/differences between peptide hormones and steroid hormones.
Peptide hormones have surface receptors that act via secondary messengers.

Steroid hormones have intracellular receptors; hormone/receptor binding to DNA promotes transcription of specific genes.
What is the site of longitudinal bone growth?
Epiphyseal plate
What are the differences between red and yellow bone marrow? Where can each be found?
Red marrow is involved in blood cell formation, stimulated by erythropoietin release from kidney.

Yellow is inactive marrow, infiltrated by adipose (fatty) tissue.

Both are found in the cavities of spongy bone between spicules.
What are the two different types of bone formation?
Endochondral ossification--bone replaces existing cartilage.

Intramembrous ossification--undifferentiated tissue is transformed into and replaced by bone.
What is the function of the T system?
The T system provides channels for ion flow throughout muscle fibers, and can also propagate an action potential.
What are the different types of muscle fibers?
Red--"slow-twitch" have a high myoglobin content and many mitochondria; derive energy from aerobic respiration and capable of sustained activity.

White--"fast-twitch" anaerobic, therefore with less myoglobin and fewer mitochondria; have a greater rate of contraction than red fibers but fatigue easily.
To which protein does Ca2+ bind and on which filament?
Calcium binds to troponin on the actin (thin) filament.
From what high-energy compounds can ATP be produced?
Fatty acids, glycogen, glucose, creatine phosphate.
Name and describe the four different types of basic tissue.
Epithelial--covers surfaces, lines cavities

Nervous--made up of neurons involved in perception, processing, and storage of information.

Connective--body support (bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, etc.)

Muscle--great contratile capability, involved in body movement (cardiac, skeletal, smooth)
What are the stipulations of the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium?
1. Large population
2. No mutations affecting gene pool.
3. Mating b/w individuals is random.
4. No net migration of individuals in or out of population.
5. Genes in population are all equally successful at reproducing.
What is the Hardy-Weinberg equation?
p + q = 1
What are the deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium?
1. Natural selection
2. Mutation
3. Assortive mating
4. Genetic drift
5. Gene flow
What is the difference between a heterotroph and an autotroph?
An autotroph is a self-feeder who obtains carbon from CO2

A heterotroph (like most bacteria) derive carbon from organic nutrients.
What is a frameshift mutation and how is it different from a point mutation?
A frameshift mutation occurs when there is an addition or deletion of 1 or 2 base pairs, causing the ribosome to read codons in the wrong frame.

A point mutation does NOT cause the ribosome to read out of frame. They consist of ALTERED base pairs, not deletions/insertions.
What are the four different types of "directional" blotting?
Southern-DNA identification
Western-proteins (confirm presence of antibodies)
Eastern-no such thing!
What is the difference between an endocrine and an exocrine gland?
Endocrine-synthesize and secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system.

Exocrine-secrete substances that are transported by ducts.
What zymogens does trypsin activate?
Chymotrypsinogen, carboxypeptidase
What hormones does the duodenum secret in response to chyme?
Secretin--stimulates release of alkaline pancreatic juice

CCK--(cholecystokinin) stimulates release of pancreatic enzymes and bile
What is bile comprised of and what is its structure?
Bile salts, pigments, and cholesterol

Has water-soluble and fat-soluble areas that can form micelles to emulsify fats
Where does the majority of chemical digestion occur? Nutrient absorption?

Jejunum, ileum (including vitamin absorption)
What are chylomicrons and how are they removed from the intestine?
Protein-coated droplets containing tryglycerides, phosphoglycerides, and cholesterol.

They are secreted into tiny lymph vessels--lacteals--, enventually carried via lymphatic system and bloodstream to liver
What is the rule regarding Barr bodies?
The number of X chromosomes is one more than the number of Barr bodies.
What are the functions of the cerebral cortex? Where is it located?
Functions to process sensory/motor input and memory.

Located in the forebrain (telencephalon part)
Through what structure do the Right and Left coritices communicate?
Corpus callosum
What are the two components of the diencephalon?
Thalamus, hypothalamus
What are the components of the brainstem?
Midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
Where in the cell do proteins undergo post-translational modifications?
Rough ER and Golgi apparatus
What group of cells is responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
What group of cells is responsible for humoral immunity?
What are the characteristics of an autosomal dominant disease?
-Person needs a single copy to inherit it
-Traits do not skip generations
-Equal number of males/females affected
-Father-son transmission observed
What is anticipation?
The symptoms of a genetic disorder become apparent at an earlier age with each passing generation, most often accompanied with an increase in severity of symptoms.
Where is the cerebellum located and what is it responsible for?
Hindbrain; balance, hand-eye coordination
What part of the immune system manufactures antibodies against specific antigens?
B-cells (humoral response)
What is the dominant phase expected for most fungi?
Summarize the four stages of mitosis.
Prophase--chromosomes condense, spindles form
Metaphase--chromosomes align at equatorial plate
Anaphase--sister chromatids separate
Telophase--new nuclear membranes form
How often to muscle and nerve cells divide?
What are the four types of asexual reproduction?
Binary fission, budding, regeneration, parthogenesis
What is the difference between meiosis I and II?
Meiosis II is not preceded by chromosomal replication
What is disjunction and when does it occur?
When homologous pairs of chromosomes separate and are pulled to opposite poles of the cell during Anaphase I.
What is pinocytosis?
A type of endocytosis in which small particles of liquid are engulfed by a cell.
What structures arise from the ectoderm?
Nervous system, epidermis, lens of eye, inner ear
What structures arise from the endoderm?
Epithelial linings of GI and respiratory tracts, lungs, liver, pancreas, thyroid
What structures arise from the mesoderm?
Muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, excretory system, gonads, kidney
What is the path of digestion?
Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
What is the respiratory pathway?
Nares, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchiole, alveoli
What is a secondary immune response?
A rapid body response to an invader that has been in the body before.
What are the three types of gastric glands in the stomach and what does each produce?
Chief cells--pepsin
Parietal cells--HCl
Mucous cells-mucus
A ligament connects what two structures together?
Bone to bone