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74 Cards in this Set

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Persian Hindu (Sanskrit sindhu) meaning river.
Founded in India around 1500 BC or earlier around the Indus Valley near the River Indus (Pakistan);
3rd largest after Christianity and Islam; The guru or sage is the spiritual leader; Pantheism with polytheistic elements.
A major influence was done by the Aryan people
Hinduism
To attain liberation (Moksa) from the cycle of reincarnation
Live according to the dharma
Hinduism - Purpose in Life
Hinduism - Major Sects
Saivism
Vaisnavism
Saktism
Vedas
Upanishads
Sutras
Bhagavad Gita
Hinduism - Sacred Text
The authority of the Vedas (oldest Indian sacred texts)
Authority of the Brahmans (priest)
Reincarnation
The law of Karma that determines one’s destiny in this life and the next
Hinduism - Main Beliefs
Hinduism - Four purposes in life
Dharma: fulfill moral, social and religious duties
Artha: attain financial and wordily success
Kama: satisfy desires and drives in moderation
Moksha: attain freedom from reincarnation
Hinduism - Four stages of life
Brahmacharga: school years, grow and learn
Grhastha: marriage, family and career
Vanaprastha: turn attention to spiritual things
Sanrgasu: abandon world to seek spiritual things
Hinduism - Ten commitments
Ahimsa: do no harm
Satya: do not lie
Asteya : do not steal
Brahmacharya : do not overindulge
Aparigraha: do not be greedy
Saucha : Be clean
Santosha – Be content
Tapas: Be self-discipline
Svadhyaya: study
Ishvara Pranidhana: surrender to God
Hinduism - Texts
The Vedas
Most sacred text written in Sanskrit about 1200 BCE
Absolute authority for religious knowledge
Consisted in four collection of Samhitas (mantras)
1)Rig Veda : Wisdom of the Verses: Eldest of Vedas Hyms to praised God used by Hotri priests. Focus on pleasing the principal gods: Indra (war, wind and rain); Agni (sacrificial fire); Sarga (the sun) and Varuna (the cosmic order)
2)Yajur Veda: Wisdom of the sacrificial formulas Handbook by priests performing the vedic sacrifices. Used by Udgatri priests
3)Sama Veda: Wisdom of the Chants. Chants and tunes for singing at the sacrifices.
4)Atharva Veda: Wisdom of the Atharvan priests Preserves traditions which pre-date the Aryan influence and consists of spells, charms and magical formulae
Hinduism - Texts
Brahmanas
Rituals and prayers to guide the priests in their duties
Explains the mythology and significance behind the Vedic rituals
Primarily concern with the meaning of the rituals
Hinduism - Texts
Aranyakas (Forest Books)
Similar to the Brahmanas discusses some rites are not suitable for the village
Concern worship and meditation
Hinduism - Texts
Upanishads
Sittings near a teacher
Mystical and philosophical teaching of Hinduism
Philosophical works that introduce the now-central ideas of self-realization, yoga, meditation, karma, and reincarnation.
Most important are:
a)Brhadaranyaka : Great Forest Text
b)Chandogya ( Chandogya priests)
Hinduism - Text
Bhagavad Gita
Song of the Lord
Part of the book of the Mahabharata.
Teaches people can avoid karma by performing the duties of their castes
Account of the wars of the house of Bharata
Dialogue between prince Arjuna and Krishna.
Discuss about war.
Krishna tells Arjuna that he must do his duty and death does not destroy the soul.
Hinduism - Text Ramayana
Story of Prince Rama sent into exile in the forest with wife Sita and brother Lakshamana
Sita abducted by evil Ravana and rescue by Prince Rama with help of Hanuman, Monkey God.
Story of good overcoming evil.
Hinduism - Varna or
Social Caste
People belong to a Jat (community) and these Jats were grouped into four Varna and fifth group called the untouchables. Hierarchy based on purity and pollution

1)Brahmins (the priest and academics)
2)Kshatriyas (rulers, military)
3)Vaishyas (farmers, landlords and merchants)
4)Sudras (peasants, servants, and workers in non-polluting jobs)

The untouchables were the Dalit. They were called Harijan. Children of God. They work in polluting jobs and could not belong to any of the four castes
Hinduism - Trimurty
Three gods responsible for creation, unkeep and destruction of the word. Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva
Symbolizes creating, preservation and destructions
Hinduism - Deity
Brahman
Universal God; his work is done and work is up to three main gods
Hinduism - Deity Brahma
Brahma. created the world and all creatures. Least worshiped God
Hinduism - Deity Vishnu
Preserver and protector of the universe
Return to earth in trouble times to balance good and evil
Nine reincarnations. Will reincarnate one more time close to end of the world
Reincarnation of Rama: Greatest warrior/ideal man. Kills King Ravana who abducted his wife.
Reincarnation of Krishna : Mentally advanced man. Hero in the Mahabharata poem. Famous message known as the Baghavad Git
Hinduism - Deity Shiva
The destroyer and restorer
In Ramayana Shiva is mighty and personal god
In Mahabharata Shiva is equal to Vishnu
Female consorts are Uma, Sati, Parvati, Durga, Kaki and Shakti
Hinduism - Sects
Vaishanavism
Shaivism
Shaktism
Smartism
Hinduism - Sect Vaishanavism
Vishnu ( Reincarnations Krishna or Rama) is the supreme god
Members are vaishnavites or vaihsnavas
Emphasis on god as personal being
Six qualities of God: knowledge, all power, supreme majesty, supreme strength, unlimited energy and total self-sufficiency
Purushottama; supreme person, popular name of God
Subdivisions: Sri Sampradayins; Ramanandis; Vallabhacharins or Krishna Samprahayins; Chaitanyas; Nimbarkas; Madhvas; Radha Vallabhis
Hinduism - Sect Shaivism
Yoga
Purva Mimansa
Uttara Mimansa
Nyaya: uses logical analysis as a means of arriving at knowledge of the world.
Vaisheshika
Samkhyia
Hinduism - Yoga
Technique or discipline of asceticism and meditation, method for perfecting one’s union with the divine
Jnana yoga: discipline of knowledge and insight
Karma yoga: selfless action
Bhakti yoga: devotion to a deity or guru
Raja yoga: royal discipline of meditation
Hatha yoga: discipline of postures and bodily exercises
Hinduism - Religious rites
Nitya : daily, offerings made at home; puja to family deities
Naimittika: celebrations or festivals during the year
Kamya: optional, Pilgrimage one of them
Hinduism - Holy Days
Diwali: festival of lights
Ganesh Chaturthi: birthday of Lord Ganesh
Hanuman Jayanti: birthday of the Monkey God
Holi: spring festival, celebrates creation and renewal. Dedicated to Krishna
Krishna Jayanti: birth of Krishna
Mahashivrati: festival dedicated to Shiva
Makar Sakrant: festival of the solar calendar year
Navaratri: festival that symbolizes the triumph of good over evil
Raksha Bandham: festival of brotherhood and love
Rama Navami: birth of Lord Rama
Thaipusam: celebrations in Malaysia
Varsha Pratipada: Hindu Spring New Year
Hinduism - Atman
The spiritual essence of all individual human beings
Hinduism - Mantra
A short sacred phrase, often chanted or used in meditation
Hinduism - Dharma
Rules of order.
In Upanishads is the primary knowledge to attain Brahman
Hinduism - Samadhi
State of complete inner peace resulting from meditation
Hinduism - Samsara
Everyday world of change and suffering, leading to rebirth. The life cycle
Hinduism - Puja
Worship. Offering and ritual in honor of deity
Hinduism - River Ganges
Holiest rivers
Hinduism - Hindu pilgrimage
Rivers, temples, mountains and sacred sites
Hinduism - Mohandas Gandhi
Leader of the movement toward India independence who advocated nonviolent methods to effect social change
Hinduism - Avatar
Earthly embodiment of a deity
Hinduism - Ram Mohan Roy
Father of modern India
Hinduism - Vedic Religion
Emphasizing sacrifice
Calling for order in nature and society and worshipping many gods and goddesses
Hinduism - Worship of Aryan gods
Have been thru temple ceremonies
Budhism - Bodhi Tree or Pipal or Ficus Tree
Where Buddha was enlightened around 450 -535 BCE. Age 35
Buddha
The Enlightened One
Member of the Sakyas clan
Siddhartha Gautama (given name)
Caste Ksatriyas
Budhism - Three Delusions
Ignorance, Desire, Anger or hatred
Budhism - Three Trainings
Moral discipline, Concentration & Wisdom
Budhism - Four Noble Truths
All of life is marked by suffering
Suffering is caused by desire and attachment
Suffering can be eliminated
Suffering is eliminated by following the Noble Eightfold Path
Budhism - Noble Eightfold Path
Right Beliefs
Right Aspirations
Right Speech
Right Conduct
Right Livelihood
Right Mindfulness
Right Meditational attainment
Budhism - Five Precepts
Do not kill; Do not steal; Do not engage in sexual misconduct; Do not lie; Do not use intoxicants
Budhism - Theravada Buddhism
Dominant is South Asia, Sri Lanka
They Way of the Elders (In Pali language)
Follow the original beliefs.
Strives for wisdom
Followed as a teaching or philosophy
Emphasizes rules and education
Budhism - Theravada Purpose in life
Become Arhat; A saint who has achieve Nirvana and will not be reborn again.
Budhism - Mahayana Buddhism
1st century, more liberal.
Greater Vehicle
Available to all people and not only monks and ascetics.
North Asia and Far East. Including China, Japan, Korea, Tibet and Mongolia
More religious
Compassion is the highest virtue.
Emphasizes tuition and practice
Budhism - Mahayana Purpose in life
To become Boddhisattvas. Persons who have become enlightened but unselfishly delay Nirvana to help others attain it first and it can be attained in a single lifetime
Budhism - Mahayana subdivisions
Zen
Nichiren
Pure Land
Budhism - Vajrayana Buddhism
Upaya is the technique that accelerates enlightenment by the use of tantra (esoteric traditions)
Budhism - Nirvana
Release from suffering and rebirth that brings inner peace
Budhism - Tripitaka
Three collections of Buddhist texts
Budhism - Samasara
Constant rebirth and the attendant suffering, the everyday world of change
Confucianism - Confucius life
Confucius was born in 551 BC in the state of Lu
Served in minor government posts and managing stables
Master in six arts: ritual, music, archery, charioteering, calligraphy, and arithmetic
Left his country at age 56 and accompanied by students.
Returned home at age 67 and die in 479 at age 73
Confucianism -
Way of life taught by Confucius in the 6th and 5th century BC
Founded on China
Became influential when Dong Zhongshu emereged in the 2nd century BC
Recognized as the Han state cult.
Influenced by Daoism and Buddhism, strongest influence was the moral fabric of Chinese society.
11th century produced Neo-Confucianism; major influence in Korean during the Choson dynasty and in Japan during the Tokugawa period.
High optimistic view of human nature
Human beings are teachable, improvable and perfectible thru personal and communal endeavour
Most concerned with social order
Confucianism - Beliefs
Jen; Chun-Tzu, Li & Wen ethical/motivational topics
Jen : Benevolence, humaneness towards others: the highest Confucian virtue. Outlined in the Analects.
Chun-Tzu : Matured, cultivated, humane person. Person aims to live by the highest of ethical standards.
Li: Ritual norms, propriety, etiquette
Wen : Arts of peace. Music, art, poetry, aesthetic and spiritual aptitudes
Hsiao: love within the family
Yi: Righteousness
Xiao: Filial piety: Five basic relations are: Father-Son; Ruler-Minister; Husband-Wife; Old-Young and Friend-Friend.
Zhong : Loyalty to one’s true nature
Shu: Reciprocity
Yi: Righteousness
Xin: honesty and trustworthiness
Chung: loyalty to the state
Confucianism - Texts Analect
Most revered sacred scripture.
Based on master’s sayings, preserved in oral and written transmissions
Confucianism - Text The Confucian Canon
Consist of Five classics and four books. Current present form Sung dynasty under Chu Hsi
Confucianism - The Wu Jing or Five Classics
Shu Ching Classic History: Collection of documents and speeches dating Han Dynasty.( 23 – 220 CE)
Shih Ching Classic of Odes collection of poems and songs from early Chou Dynasty (1027-402 BC)
I Ching Classic of Changes : collection of texts on divination based on 64 hexagrams reflecting relationship between Yin and Yang
Ch’un Ching Spring and Autumn Annals the history of the state of Lu from 772 to 484 BCE
Li Ching Classic of Rites: three books on the Li (rites of Propriety
Confucianism - The Si Shu
Four books
Lun Yu : Analects of Confucius
Chung Yung : Doctrine of the Mean
Ta Hsueh : Great Learning
Meng Tzu : writings of Meng Tzu (371-289 BCE) a philosopher who traveled from state to state conversing with government rulers
Confucianism - Mencius
Born 372- 289 BCE in the statof Zhou
Philosopher and sage
Principal interpreter of Confucianism
Traveled around China to offer advice to rulers for reform
The Meng-Tzu book: conversations with kings of the time
Emphasized the significance of the common citizens in the state
Confucianism - Mo tzu
Philosopher founder of the school of Mohism and argued against Confucianism and Daoims
Teachings emphasized self-reflection and authenticity rather than obedience to ritual
Taoism - Taoism Daoism
Based on the teachings of the Tao Te Chiing
Emphasis on spiritual harmony within the individual
Complements Confucianism focus on social duty
Founded 550 BCE in china
Founder Lao-Tze
Pantheism
Purpose in life: Inner harmony and peace; longevity
Symbols: Yin-Yan
Sacred Texts: Tao Te Chiing, Chuang-Tzu
House of worship: temple
Spiritual leader: Sage
How to live: In accordance with Tao
Taoism - Beliefs
Ch’I / Chi/ QI Air or Breath:
It refers to the energy flow or life force that pervades all things.
The quality, quantity, and balance are essential to maintain health and achieving long life.
Techniques :
a)Ta’i Chi (Breath Control) to balance the levels of Ch’i in one’s body
b)Feng Shui (placement and arrangement of space) based on the flow of ch’I and the five elements and yin yang
Taoism - Beliefs
Death and Afterlife
Two aspects of reality, the unchanging Tao.
Transformation from being to non-being; from yang to yin
Death should not be feared nor desired
Taoism - Beliefs
Immortals – Xian
Spiritual beings of primary importance
The perfected persons (Chen Jen) are worship.
Specially know as the Eight Immortals born in the Tang Dyansty 618-907 or Song Dynasty 960-1279
Li T’eh-kuai Li with the iron crutch: magic and healing potions. Patron of the sick
Chunglu Ch’uan has the power to raise the dead. Patron of the military men
Lan ts’ai-ho depicted as a woman or young boy. Patron of the florists
Chang Kuo-lao Patron of old men
Ho Hsien-Ku Only female immortal
Lu Tung-pin : de facto leader. Patron of barbes
Han Hsiang-tzu:p Epitome of the peaceful mountain-dweller. Patron of musicians
Ts’ao Kuo-ch’iu Sung imperial family. Patron of actors
Taoism - Beliefs
Purpose of Life
Live in accordance with the Tao
A Taoist does not struggle, oppose or strive
Instead, the sage practices Wu-Wei Non-Action. To orient oneself with the Tao that one’s actions go unnoticed. Let the nature take its course.
The focus is to attaining immortality using variety of methods:
Attention on the body thru diet, exercises and mindfulness
Regulating the breath (chi)
Harnessing sexual energy
Exploring alchemy to find the elixir of immortality
Behaving morally that is in harmony with the Tao
Searching for the Isles of the Blessed where the immortals dwell and persuade them to share their secrets of immortality.
Taoism - Beliefs
The Tao
Tao is the mysterious natural order of the universe
Everythingness
It encompasses both the Being YU and Non Being WU
Encompasses opposites and complementary forces yin and yang
The goal of the Taoist is to keep balance in the opposites
Taoism - Yin
Darkness
Femininity
Passivity
Water
Taoism - Yang
Light
Masculinity
Activity
Air
Taoism - Early Taoism
Taught that life should be lived on a day to day basis
Taoism - Later Taoism
Concept of immortality is based on the extension of life in this world