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6 Cards in this Set

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clever hans - observer expectancy effect
Clever Hans was a horse that was claimed to have been able to perform arithmetic and other intellectual tasks.

After formal investigation in 1907, psychologist Oskar Pfungst demonstrated that the horse was not actually performing these mental tasks, but was watching the reaction of his human observers.

the horse was responding directly to involuntary cues in the body language of the human trainer, who had the faculties to solve each problem. The trainer was entirely unaware that he was providing such cues.
The Heinz dilemma
required research participants to reason about a dilemma in which a man must choose between not stealing a drug and stealing the drug to save his wife’s life.
Banding is used to increase diversity and reduce adverse impact in the workplace. When using this technique, a range of test scores that are considered equivalent for selection purposes are specified and other job-related and/or diversity factors are then used to select among applicants who obtain scores within that range.

e.g. In the context of employee selection, use of the technique known as _________ involves specifying a range of scores on a test that are considered equivalent for selection purposes and then considering applicants who obtain scores within that range
Marlatt & Gordon
Relapse prevention is based on social learning theory and views addictive behaviors as acquired (overlearned) habit patterns.

The focus in relapse prevention is on acquiring the skills needed to reduce the risk for relapse.
"four horseman of the Apocalypse"
Gottman and his colleagues have investigated risk factors for divorce - have conducted longitudinal research investigating the interactions between married couples that predict divorce. They have found that the combination of criticism, defensiveness, contempt, and stonewalling (which they refer to as the "four horseman of the Apocalypse") is associated with a high risk for early divorce, while the suppression of both positive and negative affect predicts later divorce.
Adequate "floor" is especially important when a test will be used to:
To make a diagnosis of Mental Retardation and distinguish between different levels of retardation, you have to be able to discriminate among individuals with low intelligence. This requires adequate "floor" – i.e., the test has to have enough easy items to distinguish between people with different levels of low intelligence.

In test construction, "floor" refers to the test's ability to discriminate among examinees at the low end of the score range.