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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is metacognition?
The ability to monitor one's own cognitive processes while thinking, learning and remembering.
What are most useful for maintaining student attention?
Varying stimuli, changing communication channels and encouraging self-questioning.
What is Herbert Simon known for?
Bounded rationality (adminstrative) model of decision making.
What is the serial position effect?
Poorest recall is for information in the middle of a list. Brief delay = mem. for info. at beginning.
What neurotransmitter is most involved in Alzheimer's disease?
Acetylcholine (cholinergic neurotransmitter). Also, serotonin, norepinepherine & glutamate seem to be involved but may be more the later stages.
Visual Agnosia is:
When an object is placed in person's hand but they cannot name it.
Apperceptive Agnosia is:
Inability to recognize familiar objects especially in low light conditions, when there are many shadows, when objects overlap, etc.
Gen. Anx. Dis is BEST tx by:
Steele & Josephs (1990) Attention Allocation Model states:
Alcohol decreases anxiety when engaging in a distracting act. But increases anxiety when s/he "does nothing".
Helms' Primary Initial Goal is:
Help counselors and reasearchers diagnose and resolve race-related tensions in the counseling process.
What is 'automatic' or Implicit Memory related to normal aging?
Shows little or NO decrements in normal aging.
Brofenbrenner's microsystem:
Immediate system of parents, siblings, caregivers, classmates and teachers.
Most supervisees state this as most often violated by supervisors:
Performance evaluation and monitoring.
What is the item char. curve?
Discriminates b/w high and low achieves. The SLOPE of the curve provides info. about its diff. and prob. of answering ocrrectly just by guessing.
Negative reinforcement:
Causes a stimulus to be removed (i.e, give candy to stop a child from whining).
Beck's automatic thoughts are:
Misinterpretations of situations that reflect some type of cognitive distortion.
Holland & Roe stated:
Personality and job match are important.
Low LPC leaders are most effective in:
Very favorable or very unfavorable situations. They are task-oriented when the task is very structured/unstructured, work best.
Schizoid vs. Schizotypal
Schizotypal usually have a 1st degree relative with Schizophrenia. They exhibit cognitive and perceptual distortions and eccentricities in behavior.
Atkinson, Sue & Sue:
The ideal outcome is "integrative awareness stage" when one recognizes that all cultures have both +/- aspects & they decide which aspects to accept/reject.
Floor vs. Ceiling Effects
Floor = ability to distinguish at the low end of the distribution (eg. mild vs. mod. retardation). Does not contain enough easy items. Ceiling = concern for tests to dist. b/w examinees at the high end of the dist.
High-Context Style of Communication is:
Characterized by non-verbal & culturally shared cues. Mostly in AA/Asia/Hispanic Am.
What is flashbulb memory?
Episodic memory = vivid and contain emotionally arousing events.
Systematic desensitization entails:
Anxiety paired with relaxatioin. Designed as counterconditioning.
Stress Innoculation and future stressful events:
Successful coping with a stressor in the present will improve one's ability to cope with future sources of stress.
Total Quality Management is:
Maximizing customer service & satisfaction. Imp. aspect = involvement of ALL employess in ALL aspects of decision making & failures are often due to managements unwillingness to do this.
Critical Incidents are:
Description of job behaviors associated with very poor/very good job performance. NOT useful for obtaining info. on an employee's typical (average) performance.
Hersey & Blanchard: Telling Leader is:
Most effective when employees are low in ability and motivation. Work beest providing close supervision and specific instructions.
Delegating Leader:
Low task and relationship orientation.
Participating Leader:
Low task and high relationship orientation.
What are the earliest signs of Huntington's Disease?
Depression and forgetfulness.
Tourette's Diagnosis:
The presence of multiple motor tics AND one or more vocal tics for at least one year. May be suppressed for up to 3 months.
Somatoform Disorder:
Physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by a medical condition. <6 mos: Somatoform NOS >6 mos: Undifferentiated.
Minuchin's 3 Triangles:
Triangulation: Each DEMANDS child side with him/her.
Detouring: Either attack/protect the child.
Stable Coalition: Child & 1 parent "gang up" on other.
Patterson and delinquency:
Tend to have lax and uninvolved parents also nonenforcement of rules.
Girls remain self-confident until about 11 or 12 when they begin to become disconnected from themselves and others due to denial of their feelings.
Academic performance of African-American children benefit more from involvement than encouragement alone.
Chronic Pain Tx:
Coping skills and relaxation are MOST effective.
Integrity Test:
Used in addition to a measure of general, cognitive ability is likely to INCREASE the # of minority applicants that are hired.
Clozapine (Clozaril)
Advantage over conventional anti-psychotic drugs is that it is often effective for those who don't respond to them.
Bulimia Nervosa:
1) Binge eating (incl. sense of lack of control).
2) Inappropriate compensatory beh. in order to lose weight.
3) For 3 months or more.
HIV Dementia:
Includes personality, motor sx's, common sx's include cognitive slowing, impaired attention, forgetfulness, apathy & social w/d, clumsiness & leg weakness.
Wernicke Korsakoff's Syndrome:
Caused by a deficiency in thiamine. Korsakoff's syndrome: Includes SEVERE anterograde amnesia along with retrograde amnesia for events that occurred in the relatively recent past. General intellectual func. and semantic memory are relatively preserved.
Sue & Sue:
African-Americans have the HIGHEST dropout rate while ASIA-AMERICANS have the lowest (in therapy).
Disorganized-Disoriented Attachment:
Attachement in infancy is somewhat predictive of hostility toward other children in pre-school.