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24 Cards in this Set

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The nonselective gadolinium-based contrast agents used for MRI are characterized by ____-______ pharmacokinetics. They exhibit a ______ relationship between ____ and _____ ______ because of an _______ biodistribution. They don't accumulate in _____ _____ or cross through _____ ______.

Extracellular gad-based agents are formed by ____ of gadolinium to ______ _____. This maitains the biodistribution of Gd-based agents in the _____ _____, and enhances ______ filtration.
two-compartment, linear, dose, tissue concentration, extracellular, target organs, cell membranes.

chelation, organic ligands, extracellular space, renal
Name the two structurally distinct categories of Gd-based contrast agents.

Which are more stable?

What does this necessitate for the other?
1)macrocyclic - the Gd3+ is caged in the preorganized cavity of the ligand.
2)linear molecules.

Macrocyclic are more stable, necessitating excess chelate added to the linear type to ensure the absence of toxic free Gd3+ cations.
Name the linear gadolinium compounds with their trade names.
1)gadoversetamide, Optimark
2)gadodiamide, Omniscan
3)gadopentetate dimeglumine, Magnevist
4)gadoxetic acid disodium, Eovist
5)gadofosveset trisodium, vasovist
Name the macrocyclic gadolinium compounds with their trade names.
1)gadobutrol, Gadovist
2)gadoteridol, ProHance
3)gadoterate meglumine, dotarem
OptiMark
gadoversetamide
Omniscan
gadodiamide
Magnevist
gadopentetate dimeglumine
MultiHance
gadobenate dimeglumine
Eovist
gadoxetic acid disodium
Vasovist
gadofosveset trisodium
Gadovist
gadobutrol
ProHance
gadoteridol
Dotarem
gadoterate meglumine
Name the gadolinium agents (trade names) that have extracellular and hepatocyte distribution

What is special about them?

What properties does that lead to?
MultiHance (5% biliary excretion)
Eovist (15%)
Vasovist (minimal)

They bind weakly with serum albumin

1)Excretion through biliary tree (in addition to kidneys)
2)better delineation of malignant lesions (pathologic concentration of serum albumin in human tissue with abnormal vascular permeability);
3)shorter T1, T2, and T2* (high-relaxivity contrast agent)
4)with vasovist, tighter and longer protein binding leads to greater intravascular contrast.
List the ionic Gd agents (trade names ok)
magnevist, multihance, eovist, vasovist, dotarem
Optimark (chem. abbreviation)
Gd-DTPA-BMEA
Omniscan (chem. abbreviation)
Gd-DTPA-BMA
Magnevist (chem abbreviation)
Gd-DPTA
MultiHance (chem. abbreviation)
Gd-BOPTA
Eovist (chemical abbreviation)
Gd-EOB-BOPTA
Vasovist (chem. abbreviation)
Gd-DPTA
Gadovist (chem. abbreviation)
Gd-DO3A-butriol
ProHance (chem. abbreviation)
Gd-HP-DO3A
Dotarem (chem. abbreviation)
Gd-DOTA