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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
client-server computing
Application program on users computer.
User Interface provided locally.
Logic and Computation shared.
Data shared.
Thin Client Computing
No application specific software on user computer.
Computation, logic and data stored remotely.
Rendering done locally.
Web Server
A general purpose computer with:
HTTP Server software.
Operating System.
Maximum Memory.
Limited Disk.
Fast Network Connections.
Application Server
General Purpose Computer with application programs:
That provide services in support of the Web Server.
Running on an Operating System.
Designed for calculations and I/O.
In house application development
Programmers work for Company.
Dedicated, Focused, Understand the Culture.
Long lead time.
Out-source development
Programmers are employees of a third party.
Quickly augment internal IT staff.
Uncertain commitment.
Data Base Server (OLTP)
High End, Computation-Intensive Machine:
Designed for high speed database operations.
Lots of Memory, CPU and Disk.
Commercial-off-the-Shelf Software.
Differentiated by types of services provided.
E-Commerce Server
A general purpose computer with software that:
Handles communications between the Customer and the Merchant Bank.
On-site or off-site.
Application Service Provider (ASP)
An ASP provides:
Special purpose software already developed.
Leased rather than purchased.
Vendor responsible for upgrades and maintenance.
Rapid time to market.
Data Mart (OLAP)
On Line Analytical Processing:
Supports a segment of the enterprise.
Database designed for Analysis not transactions.
Software to make it easy to understand and manipulate the data.
Enterprise Data Warehouse
Designed to Integrate Data from across the organization.
Provides Strategic Business Decision making support.
Business Intelligence.
A collection of related facts and the relationships between those facts.
Database Engines
Database Engines are pieces of software that are written to access the facts in the database.
Databases are the de facto method of storing information in the “Corporate World.”
They represent “what the business knows”
OLTP – transactional
OLAP – analytical
Database Design
Databases are designed by asking questions.
What does the business need to know?
What does it need to do with that information?
Who needs to know it?
Types of Databases
Network Databases
Relational Databases
Relational Database
All data is represented as rows and columns called a relation.
Based on Set Theory.
Relations are represented as tables:
Columns represent attributes (field names).
Rows represent data (records).
Not ordered in any particular manner.
Each record is unique.
Data Model, Entity/Relationship Model
Description of the relationships between data elements.
Good Database Design
First Normal Form. Each data element (column) is a single value.
Second Normal Form – Each data element depends on the Whole Key
Third Normal Form – all of the data elements are independent.
Keys are fields that can be used to link tables together.
Keys are defined exactly the same in each table (simple keys).
Can combine fields to produce keys (composite keys)
Multiple keys are possible.
Views and Queries
Views and Queries combine tables based on their common keys.
Join two or more tables together.
Join (View and Query)
Connecting two or more tables together through a common element.
An external table that keeps the records in order.
Solves the problem of unordered data.
Multiple indexes are possible.
Adding and deleting data is quick.
The problem of unordered data
The facts in the database are unordered.
Lumped together in tables.
Not stored in a sorted manner.
Finding single records can be very, very slow.
Intersections (joining tables based on matches) is even slower.
Enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs)
management information systems that integrate and automate many of the business practices associated with the operations or production aspects of a company.
materials requirement planning (MRP)
A software based production planning and inventory control system used to manage manufacturing processes, intended to:
Ensure materials and products are available for production and delivery to customers.
Maintain the lowest possible level of inventory.
Plan manufacturing activities, delivery schedules and purchasing activities.
product lifecycle management (PLM)
the process of managing the entire lifecycle of a product from its conception, through design and manufacture to service and disposal
factory automation
the use of computers to control industrial machinery and processes, replacing human operators
meeting product demand
-Materials Requirement Planning
-Product Lifecycle Management
-Factory Automation
Perfect Order
Merging supply-planning group with demand-planning group to creates one integrated supply chain organization.
Fingerhut's effects of using the internet
-Price and cost transparency
-Lower costs of operations
Supply Chain
The flow of materials, information, money and services from the original supplier through the factories and warehouses to the end customers. Includes the organizations and processes that create and deliver products, information, and services to the end customers.
Supply Chain Components
Materials handling
Production planning
Logistics and warehousing
Quality Assurance
Supply Chain Changes
Old Economy:
Paper driven processes
Business at a distance
New Economy:
Digital processes
Workflow software (Friedman)
3 types of Supply Chain Networks
B2B exchanges
B2B exchanges
Electronic networks designed to facilitate trading among companies.
Electronic networks designed to facilitate coordination among business partners along the supply chain.
Company owned portals designed to include business partners to facilitate business operations such as the supply chain.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
An electronic transaction exchange:
Defined standards for business-related communications between companies.
Batch Oriented.
High Startup costs.
Proprietary Networks.
Extensible Markup Language (XML)
An electronic transaction exchange:
Standard (WC3).
Uses Data Type Definitions.
Supplier Push
Predicting what the customer would buy.
Producing the goods.
Filling the Channel.
Selling the good.
Consumer Pull
-Shaping Demand
-Feedback driven innovation
-Optimization of production based on forecasted demand.
Key Supply Chain Metrics
-Perfect Order Rate
-Total Supply Chain Costs
-Demand Forecast Accuracy
-Cash cycle time
perfect order rate
The percentage of orders that precisely meet customer
cash cycle time
The time span between the purchase of the raw materials and the sale of the finished product.