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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
network
consiss of two or more connected computers
network interface card (NIC)
each computer on the network contains a NIC
the connection medium for linking network components can be:
a telephone wire, coaxial cable, or radio signal in the case of cell phones and wireless local area networks
network operating system (NOS)
routes and manages communications on the network and coordinates network resources
switch or hub
networks contain a switch or a hub acting as a connection point between the computers
hub
hubs are simple devices that connect network components, sending a packet of data to all other connected devices
switch
more intelleigence than a hub and can filter and forward data to a specified destination
- used within individual networks
router
a special communications processor used to route packets of data through different networks, ensuring that the message sent gets to the correct address
key digitital networking technologies
client/server computing

packet switching

tcp/ip and connectivity
client/server computing
A distributed computing model in which much of the processing power is located within small, inexpensive client computers

the powerful clients are linked to one another through a network that is controlled by a network server computer

the server sets the rules of communication for the network and provides every client with an address so others can find it on the network
packet switching
in packet-switched networks, messages are first broken down into small bundles of data, called packets

these packets are sent along different communication paths and then the packes are reassembled once they reach their destinations

packet switching makes more efficient use of the communications capacity of the network

the packets include information for directing the packet to the right address and for checking transmission errors along with the data
TCP/IP and Connectivity
TCP/IP is the communications protocol used by the Internet and all Internet devices

TCP/IP provides for breaking up diginital messages into packets, routing them to the proper addresses, and then reassembling them into coherent messages

TCP/IP uses a suite of protocols: TCP and IP
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
handles the movement of data between computers

establishes a connection between the computers, sequences the transfer of packets, and acknowledges the packets are sent
Internet Protocol (IP)
responsible for the delivery of packets

includes the disassemblingn and reassembling of packets during transmission
Protocol
a set of rules and procedures governing transmission of information between two points in a network
The four layers of the TCP/IP reference model for communication
application
transport
internet
network interface
the different kinds of physical transmission media used by the networks are:
twisted wire
coaxial cable
fiber opticds and optical networks
wireless transmission
Modem
stands for modulation/demodulation

a device that translates digital signals from a computer into analog form so that they can be transmitted over analog telephone l ines. the modem also is used to translate analog signals back into digital form for the receiving computer
analog signal
represented by a continuous waveform that passes through a communications medium and has been used for voice communication
types of networks
local area network (LAN)

campus area network (CAN)

metropolitan area network (MAN)

wide area network (WAN)
Three basic network topologies
Bus , Star, and Ring
topology
the way in which components are connected
Star network
all devices on the network connect to a single hub
Bus networks
one station transmits signals, which travel in both directions along a single transmission segment
- all of the signals are broadcast in both directions to the entire network
- all machines on the network receive the same signals , and software installed on the clients enables each client to listen for messages addressed specifically to it
- most common Ethernet topology
Ring networks
connects network components in a closed loop
- messages pass from computer to computer in only one direction around the loop, and only one station at a time may transmit
frame relay
packages data into frames for high speed transmission over reliable circuits that require less error checking than packet switching
asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)
parcels data into uniform 53-byte cells for high-speed transmission; can transmit data, video, and audio over the same nework
integrated services digital network (ISDN)
dial-up network access standard that can integrate voice, data, and video services
digital subscriber line (DSL)
series of technologies for high-capacity transmission over copper wire
cable modem
service for high-speed transmission of data over cable TV lines that are shared by many users
T lines
dedicated lines for high-speed secure data transmission and internet connection
three characteristics of the internet
- a network composed of computers and other devices that are logically linkned together by a unique address space based on the Internet Protocol
- a network where network devices are able to support communications using TCP/IP or other compatible protocols
- a network that provides high-level services layered on a communication and network infrastructure
The Domain Name System
every device connected to the intenet has a unique 32-bit numeric IP address
- a domain name system (DNS) converts IP addresses to English-like domain names
- the domain name is the name that corresponds to the unique 32-bit numeric IP address for each computer connected to the internet
- DNS servers maintain a database containing IP addressed mapping to their corresponding domain names
- to access a computer on the Internet, users need only specify its domain name
Internet Governance
no one owns the intenet
there are intnet policies by the following organizations:
- internet architecture board (IAB)
- internet corporation for assigned names and numbers (ICANN)
---moreee
email
person to person messaging, document sharing
usenet newsgroups
discussion groups on electronic bulletin boards
listservs
discussion groups using email listservers
telnet
logging onto one computer system and doing work on another
FTP
transferring files from computer to computer
world wide web
retrieving, formatting, and displaying info using hypertext links
Intranet
an internal organizational network that provides access to data across a business firm
extranet
allow authorized vendors and customers to have limited access to its internal intranet
groupware
provides capabilities for supporting enterprise-wide communication and collaborative work
teamware
enables companies to implement collaboration applications easily that can be accessed using Web browser software
electronic conferencing tools
provides a virtual conference table where participants can view and and modify documents and slides or share their thoughts and comments using chat, audio, or video
internet telephony
enable companies to use Internet technology for telephone voice transmission over the Internet or private neworks
voice over IP (VoIP) technology
uses internet protocol (IP) to deliver voice information in digital form using packet switching
unified messaging systems
combine voice mail, email, and faxes so that they can all be obtained from one system
virtual private network
based on the Internet Protocol provides a secure connection between two points across the internet, enabling private communications to travel securely over the public infrastructure