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42 Cards in this Set

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Systems Analysis and Design
A traditional term used to describe the process of designing, building, and maintaining information systems performed by analysts and programmers
Software Engineering
A newer term given to acknowledge the movement of systems building from art to discipline by professionals using common methods, techniques, and tools for constructing information systems
Problem Decomposition
Systems building is a process of decomposing large complex problems to discover and design solutions to support the organization
The Systems Development Life Cycle
The System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a structured method complete with techniques developed to manage the life cycle of an information system

(slide 8-9)
System Identification

System Identification, Selection, and Planning
A process used to identify opportunities for developing systems projects to solve problems. This process varies greatly from organization to organization
Selection

System Identification, Selection, and Planning
The process of applying evaluation criteria to possible projects to select those that are critical to enabling the organization’s mission, goals, and objectives
Systems Planning

System Identification, Selection, and Planning
Developing formal plans for creating the information systems project selected. Some organizations call their periodic process of identification, selection, and planning “Information Systems Planning (ISP)”
Collecting System Requirements (Traditional)

Systems Analysis
A combination of methods are used:
Interviews – discussions with stakeholders (i.e. users)
Questionnaires – surveys to assess use and attitudes
Observations – watch process and systems use
Document Analysis – reviewing current documents
Collecting System Requirements (Alternative)

Systems Analysis
Critical Success Factors (CSF’s) – a process of interviewing, recoding, and analyzing, and merging factors defined as critical by personnel at all levels of an organization
Joint Application Design (JAD) - a method that brings together users and analysts in a room together to define requirements. This method greatly reduces time
Critical Success Factors (CSF’s)
a process of interviewing, recoding, and analyzing, and merging factors defined as critical by personnel at all levels of an organization
Joint Application Design (JAD)
a method that brings together users and analysts in a room together to define requirements. This method greatly reduces time
The ERD Diagram
A tool used to identify the relationships between entities to assist in developing applications and databases
Forms
a business document with predefined data and places to fill in information that is used for system input
Reports
an output of a system that contains only predefined data usually in a tabular format (see below)
Processing Logic
The processing and logic operations of an information system are the steps and procedures that transform raw data inputs into new or modified information
Processing Logic Example
Describes the steps for calculating a GPA
Obtain the prior grade point average, credits hours earned, and list of prior courses
Obtain the list of each current course, final grade, and course credit hours
Combine the prior and current credit hours into aggregate sums
Calculate the new grade point average
Software Programming
creating the instructions from the programming logic design using a variety of programming languages assisted many times by language editors
Software Testing
a series of tests designed to identify errors and validate logic in parallel with programming. There are multiple types of testing (see below)
Conversion Approaches
the process of taking information from an old system to populate a new system. This is accomplished through manual and/or automated methods
System Documentation
The collection of materials produced with an information system to support the ongoing operation and development
User and reference guides

System Implementation – System Documentation
step-by-step instructions for using the system features and functions
User training and tutorials

System Implementation – System Documentation
manuals and exercises designed to educate users and build competence in system use. These training manuals and tutorials can be supported by a database that utilizes realistic data
Installation procedures and trouble-shooting suggestions

System Implementation – System Documentation
manuals and procedures designed to support technical personal in installing and problem solving during system operation
Training Approaches

System Implementation – System Training
the processes used to educate users in new business processes and system features and functions with the goal of building competence to ensure operational success (see possible methods below)
System Maintenance

System Maintenance - Maintenance Types
The process by which a system is kept in working order and minor enhancements are completed. Some types of system maintenance are shown below
Prototyping

Alternative Development Methods - Prototyping
A systems development method that uses a “trial-and-error” approach for discovering how a system should operate. Steps include:
Collecting requirements
Develop/Refine Prototype
Review Prototype with Users
(Repeat the previous steps until correct design is created)
Implement and Use System
Rapid Application Development (RAD)
A rapid four-step iterative systems development method utilizing: prototyping, computer-based development tools, special management practices, and close user involvement
RAD Phases
The following phases are iterated until the requirements and design are completed and approved
Requirements Planning
User Design
Construction
Move to the New System
Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD)
Similar to SDLA approaches except that it relies on the tight coupling between data and methods and between the conceptual design of a system and its actual implementation.
OOAD Characteristics
The role of analyst and programmer are combined while thinking about data and the operations to define the relevant objects
The design and implementation of these objects happen quickly and simultaneously
It uses a more integrative prototyping process than the SDLC
External Acquisition
The purchasing of an existing system (hardware, software, databases, network) from an outside vendor such as IBM, EDS, or Accenture
Outsourcing
Turning over some or all responsibility for an organization’s information systems development and operations to an outside firm
End-user Development
Capitalizing on the sophistication of current users, this technique allows the system users to develop their system functions using a variety of tools
Outsourcing Arrangements
Not all outsourcing arrangements are the same, they can vary based on the need of the firm and the supplier
Basic

Arrangement Types
A “cash and carry” relationship in which products and services are purchased on the basis of price and convenience
Preferred

Arrangement Types
relationships with a few suppliers where the buyer and supplier set preferences and prices based to the benefits of each other (e.g. volume pricing)
Strategic

Arrangement Types
a relationship where the firm and a vendor are each concerned with, and perhaps have a direct stake in, the success of each other
Personal Computer Tools
tools common to PCs (e.g. speadsheets) that allow the creation of macros or automated routines by users
Query languages/report generators
tools that utilize SQL to extract information from databases and generate reports in user-specified formats
Graphics generators
tools that can extract relevant information from databases and create graphs, charts, etc.
Decision Support and Modeling Tools
tools that support complex decision making utilizing multidimensional models
Application Generators
tools that allow users to specify what is to be done and the application decides how it is to be done and generates the program code