Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Group of related files
Person, place, thing, or event about which information must be kept
A piece of information describing a particular entity
Key field
Field that uniquely identifies every record in a file
Database Terms

see slide 3-6

see slide 3-7

see slide 3-8
Primary Key
Examples of Keys
Students – ID Number
Vehicles – VIN or Vehicle Identification Number
Airplane – Tail Number
Book - ISBN
Examples of Concatenated Keys
Airline Flight
Oil well in Oklahoma
Class at OU
Database Associations
One-to-one (teams to stadiums)
One-to-many (player to team)
Many-to-many (players to games)
Why Study Data Resource Management?
Today’s business enterprises cannot survive or succeed without quality data about their internal operations and external environment.
Data Resource Management
A managerial activity that applies information systems technologies to the task of managing an organization’s data resources to meet the information needs of their business stakeholders
Database Technology
A collection of related data organized in a way that makes it valuable and useful
Allows organizations to retrieve, store, and analyze information easily
Is vital to an organization’s success in running operations and making decisions
Things we store information about. (i.e. persons, places, objects, events, etc.)
Have relationships to other entities (i.e. the entity Student has a relationship to the entity Grades in a University Student database
These are pieces of information about an entity (i.e. Student ID, Name, etc. for the entity Student)
Individual characteristics about an ENTITY. Fields are also called attributes or columns depending on the type of DBMS
A group of fields or attributes to describe a single instance of an ENTITY. These are also called rows depending on the DBMS
A collection of records or instances for a given ENTITY. These are also called tables depending on the DBMS
A collection of files or entities containing information to support a given system or a particular topic area
Levels of a Database Management System (DBMS)
Database (LOWEST)
File Processing Approach (Old School)
Storage Media: Sequential tapes or files
Data: stored in long sequential files
Organization: redundant data in multiple files
Efficiency: data embedded to support processing
Updates: requires multiple updates in many files
Processing: slower query/faster processing
Data Base Approach (New School-TODAY)
Storage Media: Direct Access Storage Device (DASD)
Data: stored in related tables
Organization: redundant data minimized/eliminated
Efficiency: data only stored only in tables
Updates: requires few or one update for a data field
Processing: faster query/slower processing
Storage Media

File Processing Approach (Old School)
Sequential tapes or files

File Processing Approach (Old School)
stored in long sequential files

File Processing Approach (Old School)
redundant data in multiple files

File Processing Approach (Old School)
data embedded to support processing

File Processing Approach (Old School)
requires multiple updates in many files

File Processing Approach (Old School)
slower query/faster processing
Storage Media

Data Base Approach (New School-TODAY)
Direct Access Storage Device (DASD)

Data Base Approach (New School-TODAY)
stored in related tables

Data Base Approach (New School-TODAY)
redundant data minimized/eliminated

Data Base Approach (New School-TODAY)
data only stored only in tables

Data Base Approach (New School-TODAY)
requires few or one update for a data field

Data Base Approach (New School-TODAY)
faster query/slower processing
Database Administrator (DBA)
Designs, develops and monitors performance of databases
Enforces policy and standards for data uses and security
Systems Analyst
Defines data requirements working with a DBA
Incorporates the database design into new program designs
Systems Programmer
Creates business applications that connect to databases
Tests the new systems and databases before use
Database Systems Activities – Data Entry
Data is entered from paper employment applications into a form entry screen
The entry forms are designed to match the paper forms for easy entry
The form data is processed by the entry program and then stored in the employment database

see slide 3-23
Database Systems Activities – Query
see example - slide 3-24
A database function that extracts and displays information from a database given selection parameters.
SQL (Structure Query Language)
Database Systems Activities – Query
see example - slide 3-24
A language to select and extract data from a database
The industry standard language for relational databases
QBE (Query by Example)
Database Systems Activities – Query
see example - slide 3-24
A technique that allows a user to design a query on a screen by dragging and placing the query field in their desired locations

Database Systems Activities – Report
see example - slide 3-25
A database function that extracts and formats information from a database for printing and presentation
Report Generator

Database Systems Activities – Report
see example - slide 3-25
A specialized program that uses SQL to retrieve and manipulate data (aggregate, transform, or group)
Reports are designed using standard templates or can be custom generated to meet informational needs
Data Model
A map or diagram that represents entities and their relationships
Used by Database Administrators to design tables with their corresponding associations
Database Keys
Mechanisms used to identify, select, and maintain one or more records using an application program, query, or report
Primary Key
A unique attribute type used to identify a single instance of an entity.
Compound Primary Key
A unique combination of attributes types used to identify a single instance of an entity
Secondary Key
An attribute that can be used to identify one or more records within a table with a given value
Designing Databases - Associations
Define the relationships one entity has to another
Determine necessary key structures to access data
Come in three relationship types:
- One-to-One
- One-to-Many
- Many-to-Many
Foreign Key
An attribute that appears as a non-primary key in one entity (table) and as a primary key attribute in another entity (table)
Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD)

see example - slide 3-30 & see 3-31
Diagramming tool used to express entity relationships
Very useful in developing complex databases
The Relational Model
The most common type of database model used today in organizations
Is a three-dimensional model compared to the traditional two-dimensional database models
Rows (first-dimension)
Columns (second-dimension)
Relationships (third-dimension)
The third-dimension makes this model so powerful because any row of data can be related to any other row or rows of data
A technique to make complex databases more efficient by eliminating as much redundant data as possible
Example: Database with redundant data (see slide 3-35)
Data Dictionary
Is a document that database designers prepare to help individuals enter data
Provides several pieces of information about each attribute in the database including:
Key (is it a key or part of a key)
Data Type (date, alpha-numeric, numeric, etc.)
Valid Value (the format or numbers allowed)
Can be used to enforce Business Rules which are captured by the database designer to prevent illegal or illogical values from entering the database. (e.g. who has authority to enter certain kinds of data)
Online Transactional Processing
The mechanism by which customers, suppliers, and employees process business transactions for an organization
These users conduct transactions online through internal systems and external Websites for processing and storage
Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)
Graphical software tools that provide complex analysis of data stored on a database
OLAP tools enable users to analyze different dimensions of data beyond data summary and data aggregations of normal database queries
The OLAP Server is the chief component of an OLAP system which understands how the data is organized and has special functions for analyzing data
OLAP can provide time series and trend analysis views of data, data-drill downs, and the ability to answer “what-if” and “why” questions as part of its functions
Data Mining
Data Mining
Is a method companies use to analyze information to better understand their customers, products, markets, or any other phase of their business for which they have data
With data mining tools you can graphically drill down, sort or extract data based on certain conditions, perform a variety of statistical analysis
Data mining applications are very powerful and use highly complex algorithms to analyze and to identify opportunities
Knowledge Management
The process an organization uses to gain the greatest value from its knowledge assets
Knowledge Assets
All underlying skills routines, practices, principles, formulas, methods, heuristics, and intuitions whether explicit or tacit
Explicit Knowledge
Anything that can be documented, archived, or codified often with the help of information systems
Tacit Knowledge
The processes and procedures on how to effectively perform a particular task stored in a persons mind
Best Practices

Knowledge Management System (KMS)
Procedures and processes that are widely accepted as being among the most effective and/or efficient

Knowledge Management System (KMS)
Generally not a single technology but instead a collection of tools that include communication technologies (e.g. e-mail, groupware, instant messaging), and information storage and retrieval systems (e.g. database management system) to meet the Primary Objective
Primary Objective

Knowledge Management System (KMS)
How to recognize, generate, store, share, manage this tacit knowledge (Best Practices) for deployment and use