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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Computer Literacy
Knowing how to use a computer to gather, store, organize, and otherwise process information. These are desirable and even required for many occupations today
Digital Divide
The gap developing in society between those that are computer literate and have access to computers and those that don’t and how it will affect them
Computer Ethics
The issues and standards of conduct as they pertain to the use of information systems including information privacy, accuracy, property, and accessibility
Information Privacy
What information an individual must reveal to others in the course of gaining employment or shopping online
Identify Theft
The stealing of another person’s private information (SSN, credit card numbers, etc.) for the purpose of using it to gain credit, borrow money, buy merchandise, or otherwise run up debt that are never paid. This is especially problematic because it:
is invisible to the victim, they don’t know it is happening
is very difficult to correct…credit agencies are involved
can cause unrecoverable losses and legal costs
Choose Web sites monitored by independent organizations
Use rating sites to identify merchant sites whose privacy policies conform to standards and are monitored (e.g
Avoid Having Cookies Left on Your Machine
Use settings in your browser to block cookies from being deposited on you machine by primary and third parties
Visit Sites Anonymously
Use online privacy services that provide total privacy by blocking all techniques used to identify you online (e.g. Anonymizer)
Use Caution when Requesting Confirming Email
Use a separate e-mail account from normal to protect information from your employer, sellers, and any one using your computer
Information Accuracy
Concerned with assuring the authenticity and fidelity of information, and identifying those responsible for informational errors that harm people
Sources of Information Errors
These are: machine errors and human errors
Errors in computer output can come from two primary sources.
Machine Errors
errors in the computer program logic, communication and/or processing that receives, processes, stores, and presents information
Human Errors
errors by the person(s) entering data or information into the computer system
Information Property
Concerned with who owns information about individuals and how information can be sold and exchanged
Information Ownership
The organization storing the information owns it if it is given willingly…even if unknowingly by use of their sites (e.g. online surveys, credit card transactions, etc.)
Privacy Statements
Are stated policies from the organizations collecting the information and how they intend to use it. These are legally binding statements
Internal Use – used within the organization only
External Use – can be sold to outside parties
Spam (see Chapter 4 for definition)
This unsolicited e-mail can come from reputable sites selling your information. Possible problems from spam include:
Viruses in attachments or links
Added to other spam lists by responding
Slows systems by taking up resources disk space
These files stored on a computer do have legitimate uses but they also can:
Store and transmit information about online habits including, sites visited, purchases made, etc.
Prevent accessing sites when cookies are refused
Collect and combine information with other information to build a personal profile to be sold
These stealth computer applications are installed and then collect information about individuals without their knowledge. Currently this technology is not illegal
Spyware Issues
Spyware applications collect and transmit, or use, this information locally in several ways including:
Sale of information to online marketers (spammers)
Illegal uses such as identity theft
Modify user experience to market to the user by presenting ad banners, pop-ups, etc. (Adware)
Information Accessibility
Concerned with defining what information a person or organization has the right to obtain about others and how that information is used
Who has access?
Besides personal access, other parties have the legal right to access and view private information including:
Government – using advanced software packages (e.g Carnivore), e-mail traffic and all online activity can be monitored in realtime or after the fact
Employers – they can legally limit, monitor or access activities on company-owned computers or networks as long as policy has been distributed to employees
Ethical Behavior
Illegal versus unethical behavior is an information age concern. Though activities are not explicitly illegal, questions exist of whether they are unethical such as:
Photograph manipulation/modification,
Unauthorized use of computers, & Information collection
Information collection
by companies compiling information to sell for profit
Unauthorized use of computers
at work or at school, “stealing time” for personal business or use
Photograph manipulation/modification
in this circumstance, the photograph not longer reflects absolute reality
In area of ethics, we rely on guidelines to guide behavior. These guidelines can come from many organizations
The Computer Ethics Institute developed these guidelines for ethical computer use that prohibit the following behaviors:
Using a computer to harm others
Interfering with other people’s computer work
Snooping in other people’s files
Using a computer to steal
Using a computer to bear false witness
Copying or using proprietary software without paying for it
Using other people’s computer resources without authorization or compensation
Appropriating other people’s intellectual output
The guidelines from the Computer Ethics Institute also recommend the following when creating programs or using computers:
Thinking about the social consequences of programs you write and systems you design (e.g Napster, or a piece of Spyware)
Using computers in way that show consideration and respect for others (e.g. proliferation of viruses, instant messaging, etc.)
Computer Crime
The act of using a computer to commit an illegal act.
Targeting a computer while committing an offense
(e.g gaining entry to a computer system in order to cause damage to the computer or the data it contains)
Using a computer to commit and offense
(e.g. stealing credit card numbers from a company database)
Using computers to support criminal activity
(e.g. drug dealer using computers to store records of illegal transactions)
Unauthorized Access
A person gaining entry to a computer system for which they have no authority to use such access

Unauthorized Access
1998 Survey of
1600 companies by

82% come from
inside the
A term to describe unauthorized access to computers based entirely on a curiosity to learn as much as possible about computers. It was originally used to describe MIT students in the 1960s that gained access to mainframes. It was later used universally used for gaining unauthorized access for any reason
A term to describe those who break into computer systems with the intention of doing damage or committing crimes. This was created because of protests by true hackers
Software Piracy
This practice of buying one copy and making multiple copies for personal and commercial use, or for resale is illegal in most countries while others offer weak or nonexistent protections. This has become and international problem as shown below
These programs disrupt the normal function of a computer system though harmless pranks or by destroying files on the infected computer.
Boot Sector
attaches to the section of a hard disk or floppy disk that boots a computer.
File Infector
attach themselves to certain file types such as .doc, .exe, etc.
viruses can change types between boot sector and file infector to fool antivirus programs
released from an e-mail when an attachment is launched. Can also send themselves address book
This destructive code also replicates and spreads through networked computers but does damage by clogging up memory to slow the computer versus destroying files
Trojan Horses
These programs do not replicate but can do damage as they run hidden programs on the infected computer that appears to be running normally (i.e. a game program that creates an account on the unsuspecting user’s computer for unauthorized access)
Logic or Time Bombs
A variation of a Trojan Horse that also do not replicate and are hidden but they are designed to lie in wait for a triggering operation. (i.e. a disgruntled employee that sets a program to go off after they leavethe company)
Time Bombs
are set off by dates (e.g. a birthday)
Logic Bombs
are set off by certain operations (e.g. a certain password)
An organized attempt by a country’s military to disrupt or destroy the information and communications systems of another country. Common targets include:
Command and control systems
Intelligence collection and distribution systems
Information processing and distribution systems
Tactical communication systems
Troop and weapon positioning systems
Friend-or-Foe identification systems
Smart weapons systems
The use of computer and networking technologies against persons or property to intimidate or coerce governments, civilians, or any segment of society in order to attain political, religious, or ideological goals
Responses to the Threat
At greatest risk are those that depend highly on computers and networking infrastructure (i.e. governments, utilities, transportation providers, etc.) Responses include:
Improved intelligence gathering techniques
Improved cross-government cooperation
Providing incentives for industry security investment