Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/42

Click to flip

42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What drugs are Beta Lactams?
Monobactam
Penicillins
Cephalosporins/Cephamycin
Clavulanic
Thienamycin
Carbepenems
What drugs are Glycopeptides?
Vancomycin
Ramoplanin*
Dalbavancin*
Oritavancin
(* Investigational)
What antibacterials target the cell wall?
Beta-lactams
glycopeptides
What antibacterials target making of the cell wall?
Bacitracin (used topically)
Fosfomycin
D-cycloserine (Used in TB infections)
What antibacterials target the cell membrane?
Daptomycin (newly detailed drug)
Polymyxins (Older class of drugs)
What antibacterials target Protein Synthesis (Targets the ribosome)?
Aminoglycosides
Oxazolidinones
Tetracycline/Glycycline
Chloramphenicol
Macrolide/Azalide/Ketolide
Lincosamide
Streptogramin
What are the Aminoglycosides and what do they target?
Streptomycin (Important for TB infections)
Gentamycin (Most commonly used in hospitals
Tobramycin
Amikacin
These all target the ribosome (ribosomal inhibitors)
What are the Oxazolidinones and what do they target?
Linezolid
These all target the ribosome (ribosomal inhibitors)
What are the Tetracyclines/Glycyclines and what do they target?
Tetracycline
Doxycycline
Minocycline
Tigecycline
These all target the ribosome (ribosomal inhibitors)
What are the Macrolides/Azalide/Ketolides and what do they target?
Erythromycin
Clarithromycin
Azithromycin
Telithromycin
These all target the ribosome (ribosomal inhibitors)
What are the Lincosamides and what do they target?
Clindamycin
These all target the ribosome (ribosomal inhibitors)
What ar ethe Streptogramins and what do they target?
Quinopristin-Dalpopristin
These all target the ribosome (ribosomal inhibitors)
What antibacterials target DNA/RNA Synthesis?
Quinolones
Folate antagonists
Nitroimidazole
Rifamycin
What are the Quinolones and what do they target?
Ciprofloxacin
Levofloxacin
Gatifloxacin
Moxifloxacin
Grepafloxacin
YadaYadaYadaFloxacin
These all target DNA/RNA synthesis
What are the Folate Antagonists and what do they target?
Trimethoprim-sulfamethaxozole
These all target DNA/RNA synthesis
What are the Nitroimidazoles and what do they target?
Metronidazole
These all target DNA/RNA synthesis
What are the Rifamycins and what do they target?
Rifampin (Important drug for TB)
These all target DNA/RNA synthesis
How do Beta-Lactams function?
They inhibit transpeptidase (enzyme involved in peptidoglycan assembly)
How do Glycopeptides function?
They inhibit both transpeptidase and transglycosidase
What are the Penicillin group drugs?
Penicillin G(IV)
Penicillin V(PO)
Ampicillin (IV)
Amoxicillin (PO)
Nafcillin (IV)
Oxacillin (IV)
Dicloxacillin (PO)
Ticarcillin (IV)
Piperacillin (IV)
What are the Cephalosporin Group drugs?
Cefazolin (IV)
Cephalexin (PO)
Cefuroxime (IV/PO)
Ceftriaxone (IV)
Cefotaxime (IV)
Ceftazidime (IV)
Cefepime (IV)
Cefoxitin (IV)
Cefotetan (IV)
What are the Carbepenems Group drugs?
Imipenem (IV)
Meropenem (IV)
Ertapenem (IV)
What are the Monobactam group Drugs?
Aztreonam (IV)
What are the gram positive methods of resistance to Beta-Lactams?
Produce Beta-lactamase
Altered transpeptidase
Increase transpeptidase amount
What are the gram negative methods of resistance to Beta-Lactams?
Change in porin structure on the outer membrane
Beta-lactamase in the periplasmic space
Efflux pumps
Altered transpeptidase
Use of Fosfomycin?
Licensed for UTI infections
Drug is broad spectrum for both gram positives and gram negatives
Use in treatment of certain E.coli infections in the intestinal tract (EHEC = Enterohemorrhagic E.coli)
Use of Cycloserine?
Used for drug resistant TB and for re-treatment of TB
Always used with other drugs to prevent emergence of resistant mutants
Major side effects: Affect the CNS
Use of Bacitracin?
Prevents translocation of disaccharide monomers across plasma membrane during assembly of cell wall
Transiently reduces the number of SA organisms in "staph carriers" by topical application on the nose
How does daptomycin function?
Lipopeptide - lipid (hydrophobic) attached to a cyclic sugar (hydrophilic)
Binds cell membranes and causes ion channel depolarization (calcium dependent)
Spectrum: Resistant Gram-positives (eg. Staph Aureus)
Not useful in lungs (pneumonia) or urine (UTIs)
Side effect: Myopathy
How does Polymyxins (Including Colistin) function?
Lipopeptide
Binds LPS (lipopolysaccharide)
Ionophore - more toxic in human body than daptomycin because it has liver, CNS , and kidney effects
Spectrum: Resistant gram-negative rods
(DRUG OF LAST RESORT)
What are the chemical carcinogens?
Benzanthracene (skin cancer, sarcomas).
Benzopyrene in tobacco smoke (lung cancer).
Beta-naphthalamine (bladder cancer)
Nitrosamines (gastric cancer).
Nitroso compounds in tobacco smoke (lung cancer).
Asbestos (lung cancer, mesothelioma).
Vinyl chloride (hemangiosarcoma of liver).
Arsenic (skin cancer).
Chromium, nickel, other metal (lung cancer).
Aflatoxin (Liver cancer).
What are the viral carcinogens?
Hepatitis B Virus Hepatocellular carcinoma.
Epstein-Barr (EB) virus Burkitt's lymphoma. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Herpes virus, Type 2 Warts and cancer of cervix.
Human Papilloma Virus Warts and cancer of cervix.
HTLV-1 Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
HIV-1 Kaposi's sarcoma.
What are the radiation carcinogens?
Ultraviolet rays Squamous cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Malignant melanoma
X-rays Skin cancer, bone cancer
Miners of radioactive elements Lung cancer
Atom bomb radiation Leukemia
Therapeutic radiation Thyroid cancer to head and neck
Thorium Liver cancer
What are the specific chromosomal changes linked to cancer and what are the common names for them?
CML: t(9:22)(Philadelphia chromosome)
Burkitt’s lymphoma: t(8;14)
Retinoblastoma: (-13)
Wilms' tumor: (-11)
Neuroblastoma: Gene amplification (N-myc).
What do Oncogenese code for with regards to proteins in cellular proliferation?
Growth Factors - Sis
Growth Factor Receptors - Erb
Signal Transducing Proteins - Ras
Nuclear Regulatory Protiens - Myc
What are the Aminoglycoside type drugs?
Streptomycin
Gentamycin/Tobramycin
Amikacin
What are the types of resistances to antibiotics that bacteria can perform?
Enzymatic modification
Altered ribosomal target
Decreased permeability
What is an example of an Oxazolidinone?
Linezolid (aka Zivox)
What are the properties of Linezolid?
Given orally or by IV
Spectrum: Gram +
Mechanism: Binds 50S subunits, preventing it from binding to the mRNA
Resistance: changing the ribosomal binding site so the drug can't bind
Side Effects: Hematologic (usually thrombocytopenia) and Neuropathy
What are the different tetracyclines and methods of administration?
Tetracycline (PO)
Doxycycline (IV/PO)
Minocycline (IV/PO)
Tigecycline (IV)
What are the properties of Tetracyclines?
Mechanism: Alter the A-site on the 30S subunit, not allowing the tRNA to bind
Long acting
Spectrum: Broad, Gram -, Gram +, anaerobes
Resistance Mechanisms: Efflux pump, Ribosomal protection, Modification of molecule, Modification of ribosome target
Side effects: Ring captures photons, bad photosensitivity
What are the properties of Chloramphenical (Oldie but goodie)?
Mechanism: Binds 50S, blocking the A site
Broad spectrum activity
Very cheap: used a lot in developing countries
Side Effects: Dose dependent, reversible anemia and Dose-independent, idiosyncratic, irreversible aplastic anemia (very big deal)
Resistance Mechanism: Enzymatic modification