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39 Cards in this Set

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Institutionalized Discrimination
when discriminatory acts are part of the way a social structure normally operates; and when they are a pervasive and persistant feature of the contact among people. Not isolated acts of discrimination.
Reverse Discrimination
emphasizes that programs designed to overcome the effects of past discrimination against members of a subordinate subpopulation often deny some members of the dominant subpopulation equal access to valued resources.
Segregation
The process of spatially isolating members of an ethnic subpopulation in areas where they cannot have the same access to valued resources.
Explusion
people are thrown out fo a country (directly or indirectly)
selective inclusion
allowing members of ethnic subpopulations into certain positions while at the same time excluding them from other positions.
assimilation
the process by which members of an ethnic group become part of the broader culture and society, losing their distinctive character.
Rebellion
general hostility and aggressive behavior toward the majority. rioting. Minoritys "striking back" and venting their frustrations, and at times these revolts become extremely violent, mobilizing people for mass killings.
Genocide
Most intense type of discrimination. When members of an ethnic subpopulation are killed or potentially an entire ethnic group is exterminated (Nazi Germany) "Cleansing"
Minority group
an ethnic subpopulation in a society subject to discrimination by members of more powerful subpopulations. Does not have to be numerical minority.
Race
connotes biological differences among peoples such as--skin color, facial features,stature that are transmitted from generation to generation. Physcial characteristics that make people different are trivial. A few allels on genes are what account for these differences and they are not determinative of basic biological functions.
Sociologically important- if people feel there are differences they treat people different.
superordinate
the dominant ethnic group
Subordinate
the less powerful ethnic group.
Passive Acceptance
active manipulation of a situation.
Self segregation
creation of a self sustaining society enables a community to create and support their own communitites, business, schools, leadership, churches, and other social forms.
discrimination
the process by an indivuidual, groups, or subpopulation of individuals acts in ways that deny another individual, group, or subpopulation access to valued resources.
Ethnicity
a subpopulation of individuals who reveal or are percieved to reveal shared hisotrical experiences as well as unique organizational, behavioral, and cultural characteristics(country of origion, relgion, values, language)
adaptations to predjudice and discrimination
1. passive acceptance
2. marginal participation
3. assimilation
4. withdrawal and self segregation
5. rebellion and revolt
6. organized protest
7. ethnogenesis
marginal participation
ethnic subpopulations find a ninche where they can use their creative resources and prosper. Created when the majoirty is not inclined to enter a specialized field.
organized protest
when subordinate ethnic groups become organized to make broad based and conertd efforts to change patterns of discrimination (civil rights movements)
ethnogenesis
a common experience leads to the creation of a new ethnic identity among people of the group. New ethnic identity is created as a result to prejudice and discrimination.
Ethnic stratification
1. the amount, level, and type of resource an ethnic subpopulation typically reciebes (resource shares) 2. The degree to which these resource shares klocate most members of an ethnic subpopulation in various social heiracrchys 3. the extent to which these resourc shares contribute to those distinctive heaviors, organizations and cultural systems that provide justification to the dominant group for making the ehtnic subpopulation targers of discrimination.
ethnic group
a subpopulation of individuals who are laveled and categorized by the general populationand, often, by the members of the group itself, as being of a particular type of ethnicity. Tehy reveal a unique hisotry as well as distrinctive behavioral, organization, and cultural characteritis; and as a result, they are often treated differently by others.
Disparity v. Discrimination
Disparity – difference: But not necessarily discrimination
Discrimination: difference based on differential treatment of groups
Systematic discrimination
Discrimination at all stages of the criminal justice system, at all times, and all places
In all parts of the country without variation over time
Institutionalized discrimination
Racial and ethnic disparities in outcomes that are the result of the application of racially neutral factors, such as prior criminal record, employment status, and demeanor
Legal factors: seriousness of offense, priors
Extralegal factors: race, ethnicity, gender, social class, and lifestyle
Key factor: outcomes not intent
Contextual discrimination
Discrimination found in particular contexts or circumstances (regions, certain crimes, or special victim-offender relationships)
Odds that the death penalty will be given are greatest when the offender is Black and victim is white…almost no chance that a white offender will receive the death penalty when the victim is black)
Drug enforcement
Department organizational factors – aggressive patrol
Individual acts
Not entire departments or cj system
individual acts
discrimination that results from the acts of particular indiviudals but is not characteristic of enteire agencies or the cj system as a whole
pure justice
no discrimination at all
discrimination-dispartiy contiunuum
systematic discrimination
institutionalized discrimination
contextual discrim.
individual acts of discrim.
pure justice
UCR
The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program was conceived in 1929 by the International Association of Chiefs of Police to meet a need for reliable, uniform crime statistics for the nation. In 1930, the FBI was tasked with collecting, publishing, and archiving those statistics. Today, several annual statistical publications, such as the comprehensive Crime in the United States, are produced from data provided by nearly 17,000 law enforcement agencies across the United States. The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program-nationwide, cooperative
more than 17,000 city, university and college, county, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies voluntarily reporting data on crimes brought to their attention.
During 2004, law enforcement agencies active in the UCR Program represented 94.2 percent of the total population.
The coverage amounted to 95.4 percent of the United States population in Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), 86.9 percent of the population in cities outside metropolitan areas, and 89.2 percent in nonmetropolitan counties.
part I ucr
the violent crimes of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault,
the property crimes of burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft.
By congressional mandate, arson was added as the eighth Part I offense category in 1979.
more ucr
Agencies classify and score these offenses according to a Hierarchy Rule, with the exception of justifiable homicides, motor vehicle theft, and arson, and report their data to the FBI.
one arrest is counted for each separate instance in which an individual is arrested, cited, or summoned for criminal acts in Part I and Part II crimes. One person may be arrested multiple times during the year; as a result, the arrest figures in this section should not be viewed as a total number of individuals arrested.
national crime vicitimization survey
which began in 1973, provides a detailed picture of crime incidents, victims, and trends. the frequency and nature of the crimes of rape, sexual assault, personal robbery, aggravated and simple assault, household burglary, theft, and motor vehicle theft. It does not measure homicide or commercial crimes (such as burglaries of stores. Two times a year, U.S. Bureau of the Census personnel interview household members in a nationally representative sample of approximately 43,000 households (about 76,000 people). Approximately 150,000 interviews of persons age 12 or older are conducted annually. Households stay in the sample for 3 years. The NCVS collects information on crimes suffered by individuals and households, whether or not those crimes were reported to law enforcement. It estimates the proportion of each crime type reported to law enforcement, and it summarizes the reasons that victims give for reporting or not reporting.information about victims (age, sex, race, ethnicity, marital status, income, and educational level)
offenders (sex, race, approximate age, and victim-offender relationship),
and the crimes (time and place of occurrence, use of weapons, nature of injury, and economic consequences).
Arrest Data
examination of the arrest statistics for all ofenses.
self-report surveys
question respondents about their participation in crime or delinquent behavior. popular source. free from alleged bias of cj system. not necesarily accurate, no single design used.
minority youth as victims
AFRICAN AMERICAN YOUTH HAVE HIGHER VICTIMIZATION RATES THAN OTHER GROUPS
HISPANICS HIGHER THAN NON-HISPANICS
VIOLENT VICTIMIZATION RATES HIGHER FOR YOUNGER 15-19 YEARS (64/1000) COMPARED TO 20-24 YEARS (49/1000)
african american males
12-15 YEARS: 1 OUT OF 14 VICTIM OF VIOLENT CRIME
16-19: 1 IN 6
20-24: 1 IN 8
MORE LIKELY TO HAVE INVOLVED GUNS AND BE SERIOUS CRIME
1999: 1 IN 8 MURDER VICTIMS UNDER 18 YEARS
VARIED OVER YEARS, PEAKED IN 1995 AND DECLINED BY 1999
RATE FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN FEMALES 4X THAT FOR WHITE FEMALES
AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES 6X THAT OF WHITE MALES
why discirm. african american males.
YOUNG ON STREETS MORE
LOW INCOME MORE LIKELY TO BE OUT IN PUBLIC
CRIMINAL ACTIVITY PEAKS BETWEEN 14 AND 24 YEARS
LESS RESPECTFUL TO POLICE
AFRICAN AMERICANS 2X MORE LIKELY TO BE REFERRED
1998: TREATED MORE HARSHLY AT SEVERAL STAGES
DETAINED
PETITIONED FOR FURTHER PROCESSING
WAIVED TO ADULT COURT