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12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Dark Ages
Classic Greece
Hellenistic times
Greco-Roman times
Kings in Rome
Roman Republic
510 until the second half of the first century BCE
Three possible dates for the end of the Republic
-Julius Caesar appointed perpetual dictator in 44 BCE

-Octavian wins the battle of Actium in 31 BCE

-the Senate proclaims Octavian "Augustus" in 27 BCE
Roman Empire
2nd half of 1st century bce through the fifth century CE
Polybius, Cicero, and Seneca
-Polybius (203 - 120 BCE)The Histories Book VI

-Cicero (106 BCE-43BCE)De officiis

-Seneca (4 BCE-65AD)de Clementia
Moral Strengh vs. Virtue
Moral strength is not virtue: it is having a rational part that controls the emotions thru sheer force, but the emotions still put up a fight.
Vice vs. Moral Weakness
-Vice is simply a maladjusted emotion which the rational part does not correct (because it is mistaken about what is right or is not functioning highly enough to realize what is right).
-Moral weakness occurs when the rational part knows what is right but does not correct, because it is too weak to counter the irrational emotion.

* Moral weakness can be reduced to excessive love of pleasures of sex, drink, and food.
* Hutchinson, probably correctly, thinks that A should have said that irascibility is a form of moral weakness that cannot be reduced to the above.
* In cases of moral weakness, A thought that the second premise of the practical syllogism is unsound: one knows that in general one should not have sex with an X, but one somehow refuses/cannot recognize THIS person as an X. That's hard to believe: did I not know Pat was married? How could that be? Perhaps our emotion, raging desire, obliterates all thought about whether or not Pat is married and renders me unable to think about it at the time.