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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Name three amino acid neurotransmitters important in anterograde communication?
1. Glutamate
- Excitatory
- Involved in hyperexcitability of the neuron -> seizures / epilepsy -> death (if glutamate not cleared)

- Inhibitory

3. Glycine
- Inhibitory
- Involved in spinal reflex pathways
- Target of toxins: Strychnine = muscle spasms, paralysis, loss of respiration
- HYPERREKPLEXIA: enhanced startle response due to mutation in glycine receptor
Amino acid neurotransmitters are:

* Ionotropic
* Metabotropic
When are neuropeptides released?
During high levels of activity in neurons, neuropeptides are released together with glutamate.

During moderate levels of activity, only glutamate is released.
Dopamine is found in low levels in this disease and in high levels in this disorder.
Low levels: Parkinson's Disease
High levels: Drug addicts (cocaine)
Low levels of acetylcholine are found in this disease.
Some neurons communicate via direct electrical communication.

Name the type of communication used and where it can be found.
Gap Junctions
- Found in the retina and medulla
Mark of the following drugs and toxins as either release inhibitors, receptor inhibitors, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors:

Botulism toxin
Release Inhibitors: Botulism Toxin

Receptor Inhibitors: Curare

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor: Physostigmine, Organophosphates
Describe the following diseases:

Myasthenia Gravis
Myasthenia Gravis:

- Autoimmune disease
- Ab against Ach receptors
- Muscle weakness with increased use

TREATMENT: Ach-esterase


- Autoimmune disease
- Ab against pre-synaptic Ca++ channels
- Muscle strengthened with use
Describe the following diseases.

* Multiple Sclerosis
* Guillian Barre
* Chronic neuropathy of myelin sheaths
Multiple Sclerosis:

- Occurs in the CNS
- 2 - 3 X more prevalent in females
- Remission and relapse


Guillian Barre:

- Occurs in the PNS
- Ascending pattern
- Muscle weakness


Chronic neuropathy of myelin sheaths:

- Seen in long-standing diabetic patients; chronic hypothyroidism; vitamin deficiencies
- Parasthesias = loss of sensation

Describe the following lesions and syndromes.

* Horners Syndrome
* Shy Drager Syndrome
* Raynaud Syndrome
* Pheochromocytoma
* Hirschsprung's Disease
* Horners Syndrome

- Lesion or injury at the neck/head
- Impacting sympathetic trunk
+ pupil constriction (miosis)
+ lack of sweating (anhydrosis)
+ eyelid drooping (ptosis)

* Shy Drager Syndrome

- Degeneration of pre-ganglionic neurons in the intermediolateral cell column

- Multi-system atrophy
- Motor system problems
- Autonomic problems
+ Hypotension (decrease in bp)

* Raynaud Syndrome

- Excessive sympathetic tones
+ Constriction of the blood vessels in digits (alpha 1)
+ Nociceptor activated

* Pheochromocytoma

- Tumor growth in adrenal glands
- Excess NE and E produced
+ Tachycardia
+ Sweating
+ Constipation

* Hirschsprung's Disease

- Segmental absence of myenteric and submucosal plexus of enteris nervous system

+ abnormal peristalsis
+ chronic constipation
+ bloating
What are the seven types of reflexes?
1. Deep tendon reflex
2. Plantar reflex (Babinksi's sign)
3. Consenual light reflex (retina)
4. Flexor tendon reflex (withdrawal reflex = pain; 2 neurons & slow)
5. Coordinated extensor reflex
6. Axon reflex (tissue damage)
7. Corneal reflex (cr. V sensory; cr. VII motor)
What are three symptoms of LMN lesions?
1. Flaccid paralysis
2. Areflexia
3. Muscle atrophy and fasciculations
What are three symptoms of UMN lesions?
1. Spastic paralysis
2. Hypereflexia
3. Babinski's sign (dorsiflexion)
LMN cell bodies are found in what two areas?
1. Ventral horn of spinal cord
2. Cranial nerve nuclei
UMN cell bodies are found in what two areas?
1. Corticospinal tract (cortex)
2. Vestibulospinal tract and reticulospinal tract (brainstem)