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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Largest part of brain
Cerebrum
__:Bilateral, hemispheres separated by longitudina fissure called ___
Cerebrum
Falx cerebri
Contains cell bodies of neurons
Cerebral Cortex (gray mater)
Made up of cellular processes (axon and dendrites)
Semioval center (White mater)
Myelinatin of axons may cause white appearance
Semioval center (White mater)
2 hemispheres connected by ____- made of white mater
Corpus callosum
Millions of axons in ____ b/c that is where neurons cross to the opposite side for communication
Corpus callosum
Convolutions are called ___
Gyri
Grooves are ___
Sulci
The are ___ lobes in each hemisphere
5
__ posterior to occipital bone.
Occipital lobe
___Extends posterior to occipital pole from parieto-occipital fissure
Occipital lobe
__inferior to lateral fissure
Temporal lobe
__extends posterior to parieto-occipital fissure
Temporal lobe
___Extends fro mthe frontal pole to the central sulcus and the lateral fissure
Frontal lobe
__extends from central sulcus to the parieto-occipital fissure
Parietal lobe
__located deep to lateral fissure
Insula (island of Reil)
___controls voluntary skeletal muscle activity to the contralateral side of the body
Precentral Gyrus/primary motor cortex
Specific parts of gyrus controls specific parts of body
Topographically organized
___allows you to perceive general sensations from the contralateral side of the body. topographically organized
Postcentral Gyrus/primary somatosensory cortex
__ allows you to integrate language
Posterior Aspect of Superior Temporal Gyrus
Wervicke's area
Primary language cortex
__coordinates muscles to talk
Posterior Area of Frontal Area
Broca's Area
Primary motor speech area
__receives info from Wernicke's area then coordinates, then sends to precentral gyrus
Posterior Ara of Frontal Area
Broca's Area
Primary motor speech area
__is most dominant in context with language and speech
Left side
__90% left and 10% right of people
Left side
____is on left side
Dominant Broca's
Wernicke's
If stroke on right and you are left dominant, it really won't affect your _____
Speech or language
Cortex and Cerebral hemisphere assoction areas
Around all primary functioning areas.
Involved in refinement of primary function.
Associated with each hemisphere is a ____
Lateral ventricle
Masses of gray matter located deep w/in cerebral hemispheres is ___
Basal Ganglia
In reality they are nuclei, not ganglia
Basal ganglia
__ collection of cell bodies in CNS
Nucleus
__collection of cell bodies outside CNS
Ganglia
3 groups of basal ganglia
Corpus Striatum
Claustrum
Amygdaloid nuclear complex (emotion)
Corpus striatum includes ___ nucleus and ____ nucleus
Caudate nucleus
Lentiform nucleus
Lentiform nucleus more lateral___
Putamen
Lentiform nucleus mor medial ___
Globus pallidus
Corpus striatum function involved ____
With extrapyramidal system
___ is made up of subcortical motor areas involved w/ instinctive involuntary motor activities
EPS
___ is cortical areas involved with intentional or voluntary motor activity
Pyramidal system
Damage to EPS includes : ___
Dyskinesia, chorea, athetosis, static tremor, disturbances of muscle tone
__involved with smell perception
Rhinencephalon
___ outgrowth of rhinecephalon
Olfactory nerve (I)
__involved with limbic system
Rhinencephalon
__involved w/ limbic system
Rhinencephalon
__ coordinates emotions and physical expression assoctiated with them
Rhinencephalon
Invoved with limbic system
Hippocampus
Parahippocampal gyrus
Uncus
___ is medial projection of parahippocampal gyrus
Uncus
___ 2nd vesicle of forebrain
Diencephalon
Diencephalon includes: ___
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Hypohysis
Epithalamus
Subthalamus
Optic nerve
__is bilateral collection of nuclei. Surrounds 3rd ventricle.
Thalamus
__: interthalamic lesion connects right and left
Thalamus
Thalamus functions are: ___
Major center for sensory relay. Sends information to cortex fro interpretation. Smell bypasses thalamus and goes directly to rhinencephalon for interpretation. Some motor function.
___ separates form thalamus
Hypothalamic sulcus
__ inferior to thalamus
Hypothalamus
Hypothalamus connected to pituitary gland via ____
Infundibulum
Hypothalamus divided into 4 anatomical parts: ___
Supraoptic region(anterior portion), Tuberal portion(middle-largest portion), Mammillary portion(posterior portion), Preoptic portion(medial portion)
Each region of hypothalamus contains _____
Hypothalamic nuclei
Hypothalamus functions are: ___
Influence activity of pituitary gland, control sympathetic and parasympathetic ANS, thirst regulation, saiety center, sexual behavior regulation of body temperature, emotions - rage, hate, fear.
__is a pituitary gland
Hypophysis
Hypophysis located in ___
Hypopyseal fossa
___is controlled by hypothalamus
Adenohypophysis (anterior lobe)
Course of factors in hypophysis
Hypothalamus synthesizes releasing factors, factors travel down infundibulum, capillaries in infundibulum pick up factors and carry them to the anterior lobe, and Adenohypophysis synthesizes and releases hormones
___ in under neural control
Neurohypohysis (posterior lobe)
Courses action of neurohypophysis(posterior lobe)
Hormones are synthesized in neurons of hypothalamus, hormones travel down axons of the same neurons in infundibulum, stored in neurohypophysis, neurons that synthesized the hormone stimulates its release, and hormones released by posterior lobe
__tells nephrons to keep urine(prevent excessive urination) and vasoconstrictor
Vassopressin (ADH)
___cause smooth muscles of uterus to contract
Oxytocin
__is fmost posterior part of diencephalon and contains pineal body
Epithalamus
___ located bet. 2 superior colliculi
Pineal body
__attached to roof of 3rd ventricle
Pineal body
Pineal body produces hormone called __
Melatonin
Melatonin functions are ____
Determines onset of puberty, melatonin drops off at onset of puberty, and influences circadian rhythms (day/night)
___lies ventral to thalamus
Subthalamus
Subthalamic nucleus involved with ___
Motor integration and extrapyramidal activity
___ outgrowth of diencephalons. Not really a nerves, they are tracts
Optic Nerve
Rhombencephalon involves ____
Metacephalon and Myelencephalon
Metacephalon involves ___
Cerebellum and pons
__is posterior cranial fossa. Posterior to pons and medulla
Cerebellum
___contains a lot of small sulci and gyri and have right and left hemispheres
Cerebellum
___has gray and white mater and _____connects two hemispheres
Cerebellum
Vermis
Cerebellum attached to brain stem by peduncles (3 sets)
Superior cerebellar peduncles(midbrain), Middle cerebellar peduncles(pons), and Inferior cerebellar peduncles(medulla)
Cerebellu functions are ___
Coordination of somatic motor activity(does not initiate muscle activity), maintenance of equilibrium, and maintenance of muscle tone
__Ventral to cerebellum
Pons
Superior to medulla
Pons
__is part of brain stem and also has tegmentum
Pons
__involved w/ motor and sensory nuclei of cranial nerves 5, 6, 7, and 8
Pons
__contains ascending and descending pathways
Pons
__is a sleep center and some regulatory centers
Pons
__is a secondary respiratory center
Pons
Myelencephalon contains ____
Medulla oblongata
__has a pyramid shape and inferior to pons
Medulla oblongata
__involved w/ 4th ventricle
Medulla oblongata
__has sensory and motor nuclei of cranial nerve 9,10,11, and 12
Medulla oblongata
Medulla important physiologic functions: ___
Swallowing reflex, vomitting, primary respiratory center, cardiovascular reflexes- b.p and pulse, and visceral reflexes
___is a mammary gland and bilateral
Breast
___ is multiple nipples
Polythelia
Developed breast in female is _____
Secondary sex characteristic
Breast function: ___
Nutrition for newborns
Breast controlled by ___
Hypothalamus (anterior lobe of pituitary)
Breast modified ____
Sweat gland
__is a large visible portion and functional tissue to produce milk
Corpus mammae
__is a adipose tissue and 15-29 functional lobes
Corpus mammae
__is a syspensory ligaments bet. adipose tissue
Corpus mammae
__conveys milk to underneath side of nipple and exit through nipple
Lactiferous ducts
__stores milk
Lactiferous sinus
___ is a portion bet. corpus mammae and axilla. Functional tissue
Axillary tail
___is a pigmented area around nipple. Sebaceous glands and hair follicles
Areola
Blood flow to breasts
Anterior intercostal a. (medial side, branchy of internal thoracic a)
Lateral thoracic a (branch of thoracic a)
Venous drainage of breast
Anterior intercostal v(drains to internal thoracic v)
Lateral thoracic v (drains to axillary v)
Breast form anastomoses with lympatic vessels at ___and ___
Midline
Axilla