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25 Cards in this Set

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What are the qualifications of a mineral?
1. Occur naturally
2. Be a solid
3. Be inorganic
4. Have a definite chemical composition
5. Have Attoms arranged in orderly pattern
6. Physical properties
What physical properties help determine a mineral?
Color, hardness, shape, luster
Elements
A substance that can't be broken into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
Atoms
Smalles particles of an element that can enter a chemical reaction
native mineral/element
Its a mineral made of one substance
Proton
Positively charged and equal to the unit charge of electron. Much heaveier then electrons
Neutron
No charge and equal in mass to the protons
Atomic Number
The number of protons contained in the nucleus and identifies the atom
Atomic Weight
Average number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Isotopes
Atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
atomic mass number
number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of a particualar isotape
Compound
A substance made of 2 or more elements chemically combined
Ion
charged atom
Ionic bonding
unlike charges attract
Covalent Bonding
Common between nonmetal elements
Ions become stable by sharing pairs of electrons that serve both atoms
Feldspars
60% of total weight of crust
Two major families: Potassium and Plagiuclase
Amphiboles
Silicates of Al, Ca, Mg, and Fe
Double chained and Hornblende is most common
Pryoxene
Resemble amphiboles and are single chain silicates
Ex: augite
Olivine
Oxygen atoms in tetrahs aren't shared and are strongly bonded by iron or magnesium ions
Clay Minerals
Sheet structures that form as a result of weathering that are known by their amorphous form, softness, low density and plasticity when wet
Carbonate
A nonsilicate mineral
Crystal
It's a solid body bounded by plane natural surfaces which are the external expression of a regular internal arrangement of constituent atoms
crystal faces
is a set of faces that have definite geometric relationship to one another
Steno's Law
Stated that the angle between two adjacent faces of quartz is always the same. This is a natural result of the regular internal arrangement of atoms
Mineraloid
naturally occurring solids aren't crystalline, but are considered minerals