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29 Cards in this Set

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Carbonates
Minerals made of the carbonate ion (one atom of carbon and three atoms of oxygen) in combination with one or more elements like Ca, Mg, Fe (ie calcite-CaCO3)
Cleavage
The way a mineral breaks along one or more smooth, flat planes
Crystal
A geometric mineral shape having an orderly arrangement of plane surfaces that reflects the fixed pattern of its internal atoms
Fracture
The breakage of minerals along irregular surfaces. Facture can be described as uneven, splintered or curved
Feldspar
A group of aluminum silicate minerals characterized by their hardness and distinct right-angle cleavage. They are the most abundant of all the rock-forming minerals
Luster
The visual appearance of a mineral as it absorbs, reflects or refracts light
Mineral
A solid, naturally occurring inorganic substance composed of an element or compound and having a fixed chemical composition
Muscovite
A potassium, aluminum silicate mineral of the mica group that has perfect cleavage in one direction (breaks into thin sheets) and has a glassy luster
Native elements
Metallic (gold, silver, copper) and nonmetallic (graphite, sulfur, diamond) minerals composed of a single element in its purest uncombined form (ie. Gold-Au)
Oxides
Minerals that form when oxygen atoms bond w/ metal atoms like iron, magnesium, or aluminum (ie. magnetite-Fe3O4)
Quartz
(SiO2) One of the most abundant and stable minerals in the earth's crust, made of one atom of silicon and two atoms of oxygen
Silicates
The rock-forming minerals made up of silicon-oxygen molecules either alone or in combination w/ one or more other elements
Specific Gravity
The relative weight of a mineral when compared w/ the weight of an equal volume of water; also referred to as "heft." It is similar to a mineral's density
Streak
The color of the powder left by a mineral when it is rubbed across an unglazed tile
Sulfides
Metallic minerals that form when a metal element bonds w/ Sulfur (ie. pyrite-FeS2)
Cementation
Process in which dissolved minerals left by water passing through sediments binds the sediments together
Chemical Rock
Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize from a solution (ie. Limestone)
Compaction
Process in which air and water are squeezed out of sediments, resulting in the formation of sedimentary rock
Deposition
The laying down ad accumulation of earth materials in oceans, rivers, deserts, and glaciers
Extrusive
A type of rock formed from magma flowing out over the earth's surface
Foliation
A distinctly layered texture found in some metamorphic rocks
Intrusive
A type of rock formed by magma solidifying among other rocks below the earth's surface
Igneous Rock
A type of rock formed when magma cools and crystallizes below or on the surface of the earth
Lithification
the set of chemical and physical processes that convert newly deposited sediment into rock
Metamorphic Rock
A type of rock formed by the squeezing and heating of rocks deep below the surface of the earth
Rock
The material that forms Earth's hard surface, composed of minerals
Rock Cycle
A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
Sediment
Earth materials, both mineral and organic, that have been transported and laid to rest on the earth's surface
Sedimentary Rock
A type of rock formed when horizontal layers of sediment harden into solid rock at or just below the earth's surface