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56 Cards in this Set

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Clovis
paleoindian period
-basal fluted poiints
-first well-documented human occupation in N.W.
Fish tail points
paleoindian period
-fluted points from Mexico to Tierra del Fuego Fl Inga, Ecuador, not found with mammoth or mastodon
-Fell's cave, chile
Monte Verde
-Paleoindian period
-Chile
-possible pre-colvis occupation
Las Vegas culture
-Lithic period 10,000-3000BC
-8000-4500BC
-North coast
-Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador
-Tropical adaptation but became desert around 4000BC
-more than 30 camps and settlements
-circular houses
-hunted land mammals (deer)
-fishing, seashells
Paijan Tradition
-Lithic period 10,000-3000BC
-10,000-5000BC
-North coast
-Notrh coastal Peru
-long sharply tipped paijan points, not for hunting, for spearing fish
-paijan sites:stone quarries, lithic worshops, short-term camps
-moche valley:Quirihuac shelter- rock shelter, people campled to collect land snails, burial sites
La cumbre: quarry and workshop activities, stone tools
Willow leaf points
-Lithic period, central highlands
-tapering points, rounded or blunt bases
High Puna, Vicuna hunting

pacamachay cave
Lauricocha cave
-Lithic period, central highlands
-high elevated puna grassland
-vicuna-deer sized wild relative of Llama
-collection of wild grasses and other plants

Pacamachay cave-surrounded by grasslands, elevation 4300km
Lauricocha cave-probably permanent residents, 100km northwest of pachamachay, camelid pasture, deer
Sierra Basin

-Guitarrero Cave
-Lithic period, central highlands
-Forgaers
-Guitarrero Cave-8000-7500BC, 8500ft above santa river. Seasonal migration cave, animal remains,only one marine shell recovered (limited contact with coast), callejon de huaylas
-1st known Andean textiles, ropes, baskets 8000BC
-1st sign of domesticated plants, beans chile
Chinchorro culture

Mummies
-Lithic period, south coast
-5000-3000BC
-northern coastal chile, southern peru
-rich marine resources, fish hooks and points
-collectors(stay in one area) not foragers
-sedentary villages, circular houses
-elaborate cult of the dead
-Mummies
Black-5000-3000BC bodies dismembered and deflashed
Red-3000-2000BC
Mud-coated-Not dismembered
Paloma
-Lithic period, south coast
-central peruvian coast
-chilca V.
-corpses were salted to arrest deterioration
-believe deceased had to be physically intact to enter the after life
-circular pit houses
-lots of mussels in diet
Describe Preceramic, coast
-3000-1800BC
-maritime orientation
-some cultivation including squash, beans and hot chile
-marine fauna esp important ex.mollusks, anchovies
-cotton common by 2500BC
Huaca Prieta
-preceramic coast3000-1800BC
-Chicama River, ca. 2500BC
-Farming, fishing village with carved gourds
-cotton textiles designs
-earliest Andean textile art
El Paraiso
-preceramic coast3000-1800BC
-Chillon Valley 1900-1700BC
-Large preceramic site
-massive stone architecture in early form of U-shaped structures
Shicra
-preceramic coast3000-1800BC
-bags containing stones for construction, possibly related to mita (corvee labor)
Aspero
-preceramic coast3000-1800BC
-Huaca de los Idolos
-unfired clay figurines
-Huaca de los Sacrificios
Kotosh
-preceramic highlands 3000-1800BC
-kotosh ceremonial tradition
-elaborate hearths in center of temple chambers
-Temple of the crossed arms
-ceramics appears ca. 1800BC(end of preceramic)
Huaricoto
-preceramic highlands 3000-1800BC
-Kotosh style temples with hearths
La Galgada
-preceramic highlands 3000-1800BC
-temples with fire pits,reused as burial chambers
-pacific seashells and Amazonian feathers
Puerto Hormiga
-Early ceramics, intermediate area(northern andes), Colombia
-ca.3000BC
-pottery with animal decorations
Monsu
-Early ceramics, intermediate area(northern andes), Colombia
-near Puerto Hormiga
-ca.3350BC
-earliest know pottery in New World
Valdivia
-Early ceramics, intermediate area(northern andes), South Coastal Ecuador
-Ecuador ca. 2500-1500BC
-Real Alto
-Major Valdivia site
Machalilla
-Early ceramics, intermediate area(northern andes), South Coastal Ecuador
-1500-800BC
-Stirrup spout vessels
Chorrera
-Early ceramics, intermediate area(northern andes), South Coastal Ecuador
-800-200BC
-complex human animal form vessels
-Rocker stamping
-iridescent slip
Describe Initial Period
1800-900BC
-Weakly stratified small-scaled socities
-highly developed religious institutions
-corporate labor practices
-First widespread appearance of ceramics in Peru
-Irrigation becomes common, usually at neck of valleys
-U-shaped structures appear on coast, arms of "U" oriented to srouce of water and mountains
-First metallurgy, Waywaka, hammered sheet gold ca 1500BC
Mina Perdida, hammered copper, possibly smelting, ca 1100BC
Huaca Florida
-Initial period, central coast (center of U-shaped structures)
-Rimac Valley ca. 1700BC
-earliest classic-shaped U-shaped structures, ceramics
Garagay
-Initial period, central coast (center of U-shaped structures)
-used after Huaca Florida
-U-shaped structure with clay facades of spiders
Sechin Alto
-Initial period, North central coast(sunken circular cours more common)
-casma valley
-huge U-shaped structure
Cerro Sechin
-Initial period, North central coast(sunken circular cours more common)
-Casma Valley
-before 1300BC
-Platform with sculptures of dismembered bodies, probably defeated warriors
Moxeke
-Initial period, North central coast(sunken circular cours more common)
-casma Valley
Huaca de los Reyes
-Initial period, North central coast(sunken circular cours more common)
-Moche Valley ca 1300BC
-Colonnaded Plazas
-mud sculpture in "Chavin style" (but note, the ar here is pre-Chavin)
Punkuri
-Initial period, North central coast(sunken circular cours more common)
-Nepena Valley
-clay feline on stairway
Describe Early Horizon
-900-200BC
-Associated with the spread of Chavin style iconography
-probably concerns importance of Chavin de Huantar as a major huaca,or oracle temple, like later Pachacamac
-Chavin style did not reach southern highlands(titicaca region)
Chavin de Huantar
-Early Horizon 900-200BC
-Castillo, composed of Old and New Temples
Old Temple
-Early Horizon 900-200BC
-Original U-shaped Castillo with sunken circular court(like coastal initial period architecture)
-contains passageways and sculpture in center
-the Great Image or "Lanzon"
-tenoned heads
-shamanic transformation
-vilca, vilcana mortals
-sunken court
-San Pedro Cactus
-Tello Obelisk, caiman with lowland tropical plants and imagery
New Temple
-Early Horizon 900-200BC
-associated with Black and White portal with sunken square plaza in front
-Supreme Deity(Smiling God),holds strombus conch(male?) and spondylous oyster(female?)
-Raimundi Monolith, "staff god" probably from sunken plaza
-Chavin art, kennings, anatropic organization, lack of narrative or historical imagery, animals commonly from tropical lowlands ex.caiman, jaquar, anaconda
-evidence of hallucinogens
Cerro Blanco
-Early Horizon 900-200BC, North coast
-Nepena Valley
-Chavin style architecture
Cupisnique
-Early Horizon 900-200BC, North coast
-carved stirrup spout bottles with chavin style
-spider decapitator(not found at chavin)
Kuntur Wasi
-Early Horizon 900-200BC, North coast
-Upper Jequetepeque Valley
-Two major elite burials on temple summit
-lots of gold work
-shows development of stratified society during Early Horizon
Karwa
-Early Horizon 900-200BC, South coast
-near Paracas
-painted textiles in pure chavin style
Areana Blanaca
-Early Horizon 900-200BC, South coast
-Paracas(southern edge of Pisco Valley, Cerro Colorado)
-Paracas town with burials
Paracas Cavernas
-Early Horizon 900-200BC, South coast
-Paracas(southern edge of Pisco Valley, Cerro Colorado)
-Earliest, shaft tombs with resin painted ceramics portraying Chavin motifs
-whistle bottles
-linear style textiles
Paracas Necropolis
-Early Horizon 900-200BC, South coast
-Paracas(southern edge of Pisco Valley, Cerro Colorado)
-Later, with Topara pottery in form of squash-shaped bridge
-spoutted vessels with monochrome slip
-429 mummy bundles with fine textiles
-color-block style showing complex iconography
-pampas cat and trophy heads(common motifs on textiles)
Describe Early Intermediate period, South coast, Nasca
a great deal of continuity from Early horizon paracas

-major differece btw Nasca and Paracas pottery:
paracas=post-fire paint
Nasca=painted with colored slips
Cahuachi
-Early Intermediate Period, South coast:Nasca
-important Nasca site
-vacant ceremonial center used for pilgrimage
Puguios
-Early Intermediate Period, South coast:Nasca
-covered channels used for irrigation and domestic use, esp in dry middle valley areas
-headhunting important
-tropical feathers common
-Nasca lines, probably for mountain worship
-lines and trapezoids and 1st effigies, then lines, then trapezoids
-ray centers
Describe Early Intermediate Period, Central Highlands(callejon de Huaylas), Recuay
-negative painted pottery
-stone sculpture
-moon animals
-created beast commonly found in art
-Pashash=important Recuay site
Salinar
-Early Intermediate Period, North coeast
-Late Early Horizon
-elite adobe architecture with metal working
Vicus
-Early Intermediate Period, North coeast
-Late Early Horizon
-shaft tombs with Ecuadorian influence
Gallinazo(proto-Moche)
-Early Intermediate Period, North coeast
-Late Early Horizon
-Huacas against mountains
-negative resist pottery
-elite adobe architecture
-Garrlinazo at Cerro Blanco in Moche Valley developed into Moche with unification of Moche and Chicama Valleys
Moche

Huaca de la Luna
Huaca del Sol
-From Lambayeque to Nepena Valleys
-at cerro Blaco, Moche Valley
-Huaca de la Luna=temple area with painted murals
-Huaca del Sol=Moche Valley, probable burial place of kings. Marked bricks, probably part of mita tribute
Moche Ceramics
-mold made stirrup spout vessels
-broken into 5 phases by Rafael Larco Hoyle
-Scenes on Moche poettery provides most detailed info in moche culture
-common vessels themes=portrait vessels, sacred mountains, curing, eroticism, humiliation of captives
-spider decapitator
-sacrifice ceremony(presentation theme)-sacrifice and consumption of victim's blood
-principal characters:warrior priest(sun), bird priest, priestess(moon)
Panamaraca
-Early Intermediate period, Moche
-mural with Presentation theme
Sipan
-Early Intermediate period, Moche
-Lambayeque Valley
-site containing Major elite Moche tombs
-Tomb1, Warrior priest
-Tomb2, Bird Pries
-Tomb3, Warrior Priest(old Priest)
San Jose de Moro
-Early Intermediate period, Moche
-Moche site with two tombs containing women dressed as Priestess of Presentation theme
Huaca de la Luna, Moche
-Early Intermediate period, Moche
-important area for execution of captives
-Plaza 3A:mass execution and mutilation of prisoners
Huaca Cao Viejo, Moche
-Early Intermediate period, Moche
-El Brujo complex,Chicama Valley
-Portrayals of warriors with captives and spider decapitator