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94 Cards in this Set

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A generalization that reflects our impressions and beliefs about a broad group of people/ All stereotypes refer to an image of what the typical member of a particular group is like.
STEROTYPE
Adelson’s concept of generalizations about adolescents based on information about a limited, highly visible group of adolescents.
ADOLESCENT GENERALIZATION GAP
The settings in which development occurs. These settings are influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors.
CONTEXTS
The unfair treatment of younger members of an aging society in which older adults pile up advantages by receiving inequitably large allocations of resources, such as Social security and Medicare.
GENERATIONAL INEQUITY
The pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life span. Most development involves growth, although it also includes decay (as in death and dying).
DEVELOPMENT
Changes in an individual’s thinking and intelligence.
COGNITIVE PROCESS
Physical changes in an individual’s body.
BIOLOGICAL PROCESS
Changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, emotions, personality, and social contexts.
SOCIOEMOTIONAL PROCESS
The developmental period of transition from childhood to early adulthood; it involves biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes.
ADOLESCENCE
The minimum amount of energy an individual uses in a resting state.
BASAL METABOLISM RATE (BMR)
This issue focuses on the degree to which early experiences (especially early in childhood) or later experiences are the key determinants of development.
EARLY-LATER EXPERIENCE ISSUE
The issue regarding whether development involves gradual, cumulative changes (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity).
CONTINUITY- DISCONTINUITY ISSUE
Approximately the latter half of the second decade of life. Career interests, dating, and identity exploration are often more pronounced in late adolescence than in early adolescence.
LATE ADOLESCENCE
An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain observations and make predictions.
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
Includes eight stages of human development. Each stage consists of a unique development task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced.
ERIKSON’S THEORY
States that children actively constructs their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development.
PIAGET’S THEORY
A sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development.
VYGOTSKY’S THEORY
Emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. Central to this approach are the processes of memory and thinking.
INFORMATION-PROCESSING APPROACH
The views of psychologists who emphasize behavior, environment, and cognition as the key factors in development.
BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORIES
Bronfenbrenner’s environmental systems theory that focuses on five environmental systems: mircosystem, mesosystem, exosystem, marcosystem, and chronosystem.
ECOLOGICAL, CONTEXTUAL THEORY
observation, hypothesis, experiment, and conclusion
SCIENCIFIC METHOD
A controlled setting in which many of the complex factors of the “real world” are removed.
LABORATORY
Observing behavior in real-world settings.
NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION
An in-depth look at a single individual
CASE STUDY
The goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics.
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
Research that involves an experiment, a carefully regulated procedure in which one ore more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant.
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
The factor that is manipulated in experimental research.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
The factor that is measured in experimental research.
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
A research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time.
CROSS- SECTIONAL RESEARCH
A research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more.
LONGITUDINAL RESEAR
The main class of male sex hormones.
ANDROGENS
The main class of female sex hormones.
ESTROGENS
A girl’s first menstrual period.
MENARCHE
A boy’s first ejaculation of semen.
SPERMARCHE
The developmental period that corresponds roughly to the middle school or junior high school years and includes most pubertal change.
EARLY ADOLESCENCE
A person’s genetic heritage; the actual genetic material.
GENOTYPE
The way an individual’s genotype is expressed in observed and measurable characteristics.
PHENOTYPE
A concept or framework that exists in the individual’s mid to organize and interpret information.
SCHEMA
(1) The absorption of ethnic minority groups into the dominant group, which often means the loss of some of virtually all of the behavior and values of the ethnic minority group. (2) The incorporation of new information into existing knowledge.
ASSIMILATION
An adjustment to new information.
ACCOMMODATION
- Piaget’s first stage of development, lasting from birth to about 2 years of age. In this stage, infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical, motoric actions.
SENSORIMOTOR STAGE
Piaget’s second stage, which lasts approximately from 2 to 7 years of age. In this stage, children begin to represent their world with words, images, and drawings.
PREOPERATIONAL STAGE
Piaget’s third stage, which lasts approximately from 7 to 11 years of age. In this stage, children can perform operations. Logical reasoning replaces intuitive thought as long as the reasoning can be applied to specific or concrete examples.
CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE
Piaget’s fourth stage and final stage of cognitive development, which he believed emerges at 11 to 15 years of age. It is characterized by abstract, idealistic, and logical thought.
FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE
Vygotsky’s concept that refers to the range of tasks that are too difficult for an individual to master alone, but that can be mastered with the guidance or assistance of adults or more skilled peers.
ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (ZPD)
Piaget’s term for adolescent’s ability, in the formal operational stage, to develop hypotheses, or best guesses, about ways to solve problems; they then systematically deduce, or conclude, the best path to follow in solving the problem.
HYPOTHETICAL- DEDUCTIVE REASONING
An insecure attachment category in which individuals de-emphasize the importance of attachment. This category is associated with consistent experiences of rejection of attachment needs by caregivers.
DISMISSING/ AVOIDANT ATTACHMENT
A mechanism in Piaget’s theory that explains how children or adolescents shift from one state of thought to the next. The shift occurs as they experience cognitive conflict or a disequilibrium in trying to understad the world. Eventually, the child or adolescent resolves the conflict and reaches a balance, or equilibration.
EQUILIBRATION
Thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence.
CRITICAL THINKING
The ability to think in novel and unusual ways and discover unique solutions to problems.
CREATIVITY
A pattern of thinking in which individuals produce one correct answer; characteristic of the items on conventional intelligence tests; coined by Guilord.
CONVERGENT THINKING
A pattern of thinking in which individuals produce many answers to the same question; more characteristic of creativity than convergent thinking; coined by Guilord.
DIVERGENT THINKING
The ability to solve problems and to adapt to and learn from everyday experiences; not everyone agrees on what constitutes intelligence.
INTELLIGENCE
Cognition about cognition, or “knowing about knowing.”
METACOGNITION
An individual’s level of mental development relative to others; a concept developed by Binet.
MENTAL AGE (MA)
A person’s tested mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100.
INTELLIGENT QUOTIENT (IQ)
The ability to perceive and express emotion accurately and adaptive, to understand emotion and emotional knowledge, to use feelings to facilitate thought, and to manage emotions in oneself and others.
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
The heightened self-consciousness of adolescent, which is reflected I their belief that others are as interested in the as they themselves are, and in their sense of personal uniqueness.
ADOLESCENT EGOCENTRISM
The process by which children and adolescents socialize parents, just as parents socialize them.
RECPROICAL SOCIALIZATION
This is a restrictive, punitive style in which the parent exhorts the adolescent to follow the parent’s directions and to respect work and effort. Firm limits and controls are placed on the adolescent, and little verbal exchange is allowed. This style is associated with adolescents’ socially incompetent behavior.
AUTHORITARIAN PARENTI
This style encourages adolescent to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions. Extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed, and parents are warm and nurturant toward the adolescent. This style is associated with adolescents’ socially competent behavior.
AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING
A style in which the parent is very uninvolved in the adolescent’s life. It is associated with adolescents’ social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control.
NEGLECTFUL PARENTING
A style in which parents are highly involved with their adolescents but place few demands or controls on them. This is associated with adolescents’ social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control.
INDULGENT PARENTING
The capacity to relinquish childlike dependence n parents.
EMOTIONAL AUTONOMY
In this attachment pattern, infants use their primary caregiver, usually the mother, as a secure base from which to explore the environment. Secure attachment is theorized to be an important foundation for psychological development later in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.
SECURE ATTACHMENT
In this attachment pattern, infants either avoid the caregiver or show considerable resistance or ambivalence toward the caregiver. This pattern is theorized to be related to difficulties in relationships and problems in later development.
INSECURE ATTACHMENT
Thought that is reflective, relativistic, and provisional; realistic; and open to emotions and subjective.
POSTFORMAL THOUGHT
An insecure attachment category in which adolescents are hypertuned to attachment experiences. This is thought to mainly occur because parents are inconsistently available to the adolescents.
PREOCCUPIED/ AMBIVALENT ATTACHMENT
An insecure category in which the adolescent has an unusually high level of fear and is disoriented. This can result from such traumatic experiences as a parent’s death or abuse by parents.
UNRESOLVED/ DISORGANIZED ATTACHMENT
Approaches that emphasize the adolescent’s active, cognitive construction of knowledge and understanding; an example is Piaget’s theory.
COGNITIVE CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACHES
Children or adolescents who are about the same age or maturity level.
PEERS
This occurs when individuals adopt the attitudes or behaviors of others because of real or imagined pressure from them.
CONFORMITY
The use of a combination of techniques, rather than a single approach, to improve adolescents’ social skills’ also called coaching.
CONGLOMERATE STRATEGIES
In most research, this is defined narrowly as self-disclosure or sharing of private thoughts.
INTIMACY IN FRIENDSHIP
Certain positions in a group that are governed by rules and expectations. Roles define hw adolescents should behave in those positions.
ROLES
Small group that range from two to about twelve individuals and average about five to six individuals
CLIQUES
A larger group structure than cliques. Adolescents are usually members of a crowd based on reputation and may or may not spend much time together.
CROWDS
The cognitive models that adolescent and adults use to guide and evaluate dating interactions.
DATING SCRIPTS
Also called passionate love or eros, this love has strong sexual and infatuation components, and it often predominates in the early part of a love relationship.
ROMANTIC LOVE
Also called companionate love, this love occurs when an individual desires to have another person near and has a deep, caring affection for that person.
AFFECTIONATE LOVE
A teacher- centered approach characterized by teacher direction and control, mastery of academic skills, high expectations for students’ progress, and maximum time spent on learning tasks.
DIRECT INSTRUCTION APPROACH
The uncertainly in step-families about who is or out of the family and who is performing or responsible for certain tasks in the family systems.
BOUNDARY AMBIGUITY
Emphasizes the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction.
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACHES
This teaching strategy encourages students to be independent thinkers and doers, but still involves effective monitoring. Authoritative teachers engage students in considerable verbal five-and-take and show a caring attitude toward them. However, they still declare limits when necessary.
AUTHORATIVE STRATEGY OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
This teaching strategy is restrictive and punitive. The focus is mainly on keeping order in the classroom rather than on instruction and learning.
AUTHORITARIAN STRATEGY OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
This strategy offers students considerable autonomy buy provides them with little support for developing learning skills or managing their behavior.
PERMISSIVE STRATEGY OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
This spells out broad mandates for services to all children and adolescents with disabilities. These include evaluation and eligibility determination, appropriate education and the individualized education program (IEP), and a least restrictive environment.
INDIVIDUAL WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT (IDEA)
A setting that is as similar as possible to the one in which the children or adolescent without a disability are educated; under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, the child or adolescent must be educated in this setting.
LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT
Adolescents who have above-average intelligence (usually defined as an IQ of 130 or higher) and/or superior talent in some domain, such as art, music, or mathematics.
ADOLESCENTS WHO ARE GIFTED
The education for All Handicapped Children Act, which requires all students with disabilities to be given a free, appropriate education and provides the funding to help implement this education.
PUBLIC LAW 94-142
A strategy in which students from different cultural backgrounds are placed in a cooperative group in which, together, they have to construct different parts of a project to reach a common goal.
JIGSAW CLASSROOM
Individuals with a learning disability are of normal intelligence or above, have difficulties in at least one academic area and usually several, and their difficulties cannot be attributed to any other diagnosed problem or disorder, such as mental retardation.
LEARNING DISABILITY
Educating a child or adolescent with special education needs full-time in a general school program
INCLUSION
Children and adolescents with ADHD show one or more of the following characteristics over a period of time: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)