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150 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Analog Communication
Uses continuously varying signals corresponding to the light or sounds originated by the source.
Asynchronous Media
Are not condumed simultaneously by all members of the audience.
Blog
Short for web log, is a personal home page with commentary addressed to the web audience.
Channel
Is an electronic or mechanical system that links the source to the receiver.
Communication
Is an exchange of meaning.
Convergence
Is the integration of mass media, computers, and telecommunications.
Copywright
Is the legal right to control intellectual property.
Digital
Means computer-readable, formatted in 1s and 0s.
Digital Divide
Is the gap in Internet usage between rich and poor, Anglos and minorities.
Gatekeepers
Decide what will appear in the media.
Interactive Communication
Uses feedback to modify a message as it is presented.
Mass Communication
Is one-to-many, with limited audience feedback.
Mediated
Is communication transmitted through an electronic or mechanical channel.
Narrowcasting
Targets media to specific segments of the audience.
Offshoring
Is the export of jobs to other countries.
Source-Message-Channel-Receiver
(SMCR)
Model of mass communication describes the exchange of information as the message passes from the source to the channel to the receiver, with feedback to the source.
Telecommunications Act of 1996
Is a federal legislation that deregulated the communications media.
Barriers to Entry
Are obstacles companies must overcome to enter a market.
Copyright Royalty Fee
Is a payment for use of a creative work.
Critical Studies
Examine the overall impact of media.
Diffusion
Is the spread of innovations.
Duopoly
Exists when two companies dominate.
Economics Studies
The forces that allocate resources to satisfy competing needs.
Economies of Scale
Are when unit costs go down as production quantities increase.
Electronic Markets Theory
Explains that people use e-commerce to minimize their search and transaction costs.
Functionalism
Examines the social functions media fulfill.
Hegemony
Is an underlying consensus of ideology that serves the dominant groups in society.
Law of Supply and Demand
Describes the relationship among the supply of products, prices, and consumer demand.
Marginal Cost
Is te incremental costs of each additional copy.
Media Literacy
Means learning to think critically abou tht erole of media in society.
Monopoly
Exists when one company dominates a market.
Oligopoly
Is when a few firms dominate.
Political Economy
Analyzes patterns of class denomination and economic power.
Profit
What is left after operating costs, taxes, and paybacks to investors.
Semiotic Analysis
Describes how meaning is generated athrought the "signs" used in media "texts."
Syndication
Is rental or licensing of media products.
Technological Determinism
Explains that the media cause changes in society and culture.
Theories
Are general principles that explain and predict behavior.
Almanacs
Are book-length collectoins of useful facts, calendars and advice.
Backlist
Books that are not actively promoted but are still in print.
Censorship
Is the prohibition of certain media contents by government, religious, or other societal authorities.
Computer-to-plate Technology
Transfers page images composed inside a computer directly to printing plates.
Conglomerates
Are made up of dieverse parts from across several media industries.
Desktop Publishing
Is editing, laying out, and inserting photos on a desktop computer.
Dime Novels
Were inexpensive paperback novels of the 19th century.
Economies of Scale
Are when unit costs go down as production quantities increase.
Genres
Are types of formats of media content.
Intellectual Property
Is creative work.
Literacy
The ability to read and understand a variety of information.
Miscellanies
Were magazines with a wide variety of contents.
Muckraking
Is journalism that "rakes up the muck" of corruption and scandal.
Newsmagazines
Is a weekly magazine focused on news and analysis.
Novel
Is extended fictional works usually of book length.
Print-on-demand Technology
Prints books only when they are ordered by customers.
Subscription Libraries
Lent books to the public for a fee.
Corantos
Were irregular news sheets that appeared around 1600.
Diurnos
Were 17th-century ancestors of the daily newspaper.
Gatekeeping
Is deciding what will appear in the media.
Joint Operation Agreements
Allow competing newspapers to share resources while aintaining editorial independence.
Libel
Is a harmful and untruthful critism that damages someone.
Local Market Monopoly
Is domination of one or more local markets by a firm.
Marketplace of Ideas
Is the concept that the best ideas will win out in competition.
New Journalism
Was the investigative reporting of the 19th century.
Penny Press
Were daily newspapers that sold for one cent.
Plagiarism
Is using the ideas of others without citation.
Seditious Speech
Undermines the government.
Social Responsibility Model
Calls on journalists to monitor the ethics of their own writing.
Tabloids
Are newspapers focused on popular, sensational events.
Wire Services
Supply news to multiple publications; they were named originally for their use of telegraph wires.
Yellow Journalism
Was the sensationalistic reporting of the the 19th century.
Telecommunications Act of 1996
Deregulated radio ownership rules.
Affiliate
Is a station that contracts to use the programming of a network.
Amplitude Modulation
Carries information in the height, or amplitude, of the radio wave.
Chain-broadcasting
Is synonymous with a broadcasting network.
Common Carriers
Must carry any signal and cannot own the content.
Concentration of Ownership
Occurs when media are owned by a small number of corporations.
Copyright
Is a legal privilege to use, sell, or license creative works.
Cross-ownership
Is ownership of different kinds of media.
Format Clock
An hourly radio programming schedule.
Frequency
The number of cycles that radio waves complete in a second.
Frequency Modulation
Carries information in variations in the frequency of the radio wave.
Geosynchronous Satellite
A satellite whose rotation matches that of the earth so it stays in a fixed position relative to the earth's surface.
Group Owner
Owns a number of broadcast stations.
Hertz
A measurement of the frequency of a radio wave in cycles/second.
Indecent Speech
Graphic language that pertains to sexual or excretory functions.
Licenses
Grant legal permission to operate a radio transmitter.
Lower-power Station
Has more limited transmission power and cover smaller areas than regular FM stations.
O&O
Is a station owned and operated by a network.
Obscene Speech
Depicts sexual conduct in a way that appeals to secual interests in a manner that is "patently offensive" to community standards, and lacks serious artistic, political, or scientific value.
Patents
Give an inventor the exclusive rights to an innovation.
Playlist
Contains the songs picked for air play.
Public Broadcaster
Aims to serve public interests with information, culture, and news.
Radio Act of 1912
First licensed radio transmitters.
Radio Act of 1927
Created a Federal Radio Commission.
Radio Waves
Are composed of electromagnetic energy and rise and fall in regular cycles.
Rating
Measures how many people are listening to a station.
Syndication
Rental or licensing of media products.
Top 40
A radio format that replays the top 40 songs heavily.
Vacuum Tubes
Amplify and modulate signals by controlling the flow of electrical charges inside a glass tube.
Webcast
A broadcast on the World Wide Web.
B-movie
A cheaply and quickly made genre film.
Compositing
Is merging several layers of imagees that were shot seperately.
Concentration of Power
Integration of many aspects of media into one compay creates concerns about political control and loss of diversity.
Digital Video
Recorded, edited, and often transmitted in digital form as used by computers.
Feature Film
A longer story film, usually over 1.5 hours.
Film Noir
Were "dark" moody American films of the 1940s often focused on detectives or similar themes.
Fin-Syn
Financial interest in Syndication; rules that kept TV networks from producing or owning entertainment programming.
First-run Distribution
For films is to movie theaters.
Front Projection
Lets actors be photographed in front of an image so that they appear part of it.
Gross
Is the total box office revenue before expenses are deducted.
Independent Film
Made by a wide variety of people outside the control of the major studios.
Mattes
Background paintings or photographs that are combined with performers in the foreground.
Motion Picture Code of 1930
A self-regulation of sez on screen by the motion picture industry.
MPAA
Is a trade organization that represents the major film studios.
MPAA Ratings
A movie rating system instituted in 1968.
Nonlinear Editing
Uses digital equipment to rearrange scenes to make the master copy.
Postproduction
Includes editing, sounds effects, and visual effects that are added after shooting the original footage.
Rear Projection
Effects have images projected behind performers who are in the foreground.
Star System
Was the film studios' use of stars' popularity to promote their movies.
Studio System
In Hollywood: to put all aspects of a film together in one production and distribution company.
Talkies
Motion pictures with synchronized sound for dialogue.
Theatrical Film
Released for distribution in movie theaters.
Vertical Integration
When companies with the same owner handle different aspects of a business, such as film production and distribution.
Windows
Separate film release times for different channels or media.
Affiliate
Contracts with networks to distribute their prgramming.
Affiliate Fees
Monthly per-subscriber fees that cable programming services charge local cable operators for their programs.
Cable Television
Transmits television programs via coaxial cable or fiber.
Coaxial Cable
High-capacity wire used for cable television transmission.
Community Access
Means created by community residents without the in volvement of the cable operator.
Cost per Thousand
How much a commercial costs in relation to the number of viewers that see it, in thousands.
Direct Broadcast Satellite
Transmit programs via satellite directly to home antennas.
Distant Signals
Cable channels imported from major television markets.
High-definition Television
Digital television that provides a wider and clearer picture.
Horizontal Integration
Concentrating ownership by acquiring companies that are all in the same business.
Local Origination
Created within the community by the cable operator.
Microwave
Transmits information between relay towers on beams of high-frequency radio waves.
Multiple System Operator
A cable company that operates systems in two or more communities.
Must Carry
Policy that requires cable companies to carry local broadcast signals.
Narrowcasting
Targets media to specific segments of the audience.
Owned-and-Operated Station
Station owned and operated by networks.
Pay TV
Charges cable customers an extra monthly fee to receive a specific channel.
Pay-per-view
Charges viewers for each showing of a program.
Ratings
Measure the proportion of television households that watch a specific show.
Scanning
Making TV pictures out of a series of seperate picture lines.
Superstation
A distant signal that is distributed nationally via satellite.
Syndication
Rental or licensing of media products.
Television Receive-only
Was a backyard satelllite system that let individual homes receive the same channels intended for cable systems.
UHF
Ultra-high frequency; channels 14-49.
Underwriting
Corporate financial support of public television programs in return for a mention of the donor on the air.
VHF
Very high frequency television band; channels 2-13.