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15 Cards in this Set

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Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II (1042-1099) Pope Reign from 1088-1099 Started the first crusade of 1095-1099 to free Jerusalem “The Holy City” from the Muslims. Crusade would unify fighting kingdoms against a common enemy and unit Christendom under papal rule (demonstrated church power). All of Western Europe took part in the crusade.
Commercial Revolution
Commercial Revolution from 1000-1250 was the expansion of long distance trade. Revolution credited to the crusades and the rise of trading cities in Italy (Venetians). It expanded commercial contacts with the east. Agricultural revolution was also the cause for the commercial revolution. Results of Revolution were the reinstitution of coins into the economy, expansion of cities, introduction of financing and banking, Manufacturing and creation of new middle (merchant) class, that were becoming more powerful than the traditional nobles.
Danelaw was the northeastern region of England occupied by the Vikings and their families. Legal autonomy granted to the Danes by Saxon king until 13th century. York, East Anglia and Mercia fall to Danes as well as Danelaw in 860’s & 870’s. From 1014 to 1042, a Danish dynasty ruled all of England.
Eleanor of Aquitaine
1122-1204 heiress of the large estate in southwestern France. Married Louis VII of France but due to adultery marriage annulled and later married Henry II of England and had Richard and John. Eleanor is and example how marrying within nobility and the importance of combining various estates as well as marrying between nations, which would later be disastrous for England, and France. Eleanor was an important figure since she held large fiefs in France that were inherited to the English thrown through her marriage to Henry II.
Comites were also known as warriors in Germanic tribes who were given shares of spoils for support. This was the first example of feudalistic tradition that would be transcended into knights and lords. Certain Comites also received land through intermarriage which began to create the aristocrat class.
The Lost Love Letters of Heloise and Abelard
Love letters written around 1121 between Heloise and her teacher who was her secret lover Pierre Abelard. Abelard was a respected French philosopher and logician who hoped to become a priest or ecclesiastical official. Abelard was later castrated and forced to become a monk while Heloise joined a convent. The general importance of Abélard lies in his having fixed more decisively than anyone before him the scholastic manner of philosophizing, with its object of giving a formally rational expression to the received ecclesiastical doctrine. However his own particular interpretations may have been condemned, they were conceived in essentially the same spirit as the general scheme of thought afterwards elaborated in the 13th century with approval from the heads of the Church. Through him was prepared in the Middle Age the ascendancy of the philosophical authority of Aristotle, which became firmly established in the half-century after his death, when first the completed Organon, and gradually all the other works of the Greek thinker, came to be known in the schools.
Doctrine that explained how in the miracle of the mass the bread and wine were transformed into the body and blood of Christ, though not a dogma was widely accepted. 1050 doctrine of Transubstantiation was rejected by Berengar of Tours (French intellectual) and created the controversy over faith or reason. Berengar of Tours (c. 999 – January 6, 1088) was a French 11th century Christian theologian, a scholar whose leadership of the cathedral school at Chartres set an example of intellectual inquiry through the revived tools of dialectic that was soon followed at cathedral schools of Laon and Paris, and who disputed with the Church leadership over the doctrine of transubstantiation in the Eucharist. Transubstantiation under attack. Realist view necessary to explain.
Charles Martel
(686-781) united the Frankish realms and was victorious in pushing the Muslims away from French territories. Son of Charles Martel Pepin therefore used his father glory to overthrow Merovingian dynasty and was crowned the by the pope as King of the Franks. Mayors of the Palace accrue power during minorities. Charles Martel unites Frankish realms during civil war, resented as upstart.
Icons such as statues and paintings were used in Christianity to portray god and saints. In the Byzantine Empire, icons were abstract figures of saints that were surrounded by an aura of gold to represent holiness and were constantly admired. Icons were used widespread through Europe to worship God and had been used in paganism. However, the Byzantine emperor Leo III banned icons in 726, because of the Islamic Expansion (632-661) that was beginning to dominate Eastern Europe was heavily against the use of icons. This movement was significant in the ideological separation of eastern and western Christianity. Iconoclasm, known as burning of icons was frowned upon by Western Europe and lead to the first significant conflict that would lead to today’s eastern orthodox Christianity and western Catholicism and at the time spur further papal revolt.
Capital city of the Visigoths in Spain and was recognized for its religious tolerance of Christians and Jews. Development of ecclesiastical law. The synod of 1565–1566 concerned itself with the execution of the decrees of the Council of Trent; and the last council held at Toledo, 1582–1583, was guided in detail by Philip II. The program of translations, begun under Archbishop Raymond of Toledo, continued to bring vast stores of knowledge to Europe by rendering great academic and philosophical works in Arabic and Hebrew into Latin. Reconquista 1085 christains wanting power back from the muslims.
Big farms (great slave worked estates). Dates back to roman times. In the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the largely self-sufficient villa-system of the latifundia remained among the few political-cultural centres of a fragmented Europe. These latifundia had been of great importance economically, until the long-distance shipping of wine and oil, grain and garum disintegrated, but extensive lands controlled in a single pair of hands still constituted power: it can be argued that the latifundia formed part of the economic basis of the European social feudal system. Roman Latifundia: Demesne, worked by gangs of slave. Largest portion of farm. Tenancy:Rented out for cash or payment in kind, Free peasants. Slaves: Live in barracks, No rights or recognized relationships, Killed, sold, judged, studded out, no family
Magna Carta
The first “constitutional” contract to be written. Signed by the King of England “Soft sword” John in 1215. Magna Carta establishes restrictions on the Kings Power by restating the feudal rights of the nobles. King John, who was a Vassal to the French King Philip II Augustus, yet refused to follow his orders and thus lost Normandy. Nobles outraged by his incompetence thus revolted against him and force him to sign the Magna Carta. This document was a permanent symbol that stated the duties of the King and Nobles and therefore reduced John’s power as the absolute ruler. Document is only targets at the nobles and never addresses the peasant’s rights. This document though was ignored by his successor was the first constitutional contract that would inspire the French and American in years to come.
also known as a fief began during the Viking raids of the 9th and 10th century when lords granted land to knights in exchange of military service. Knights promised to support their lords in the battlefield and the lords provided them with land. This process first originated in France and Germany and then expanded to England and Southern Italy. Fiefs were the foundation of feudalism since lord was given complete loyalty in exchange for land and thus transitioned from this cavalry tradition of rewarding knights, to a contract between the lord and its Vassal. The Lord would give the vassal land, personal and legal protection for military support and complete loyalty. This unfortunately leads to subinfeudation, which would greatly expand feudalism to the point of decentralizing the power of the king and the tenant-in-chief.
Alfred the Great
United the divided kingdom of England (871-899). Cultural identity and learning were necessary for unification. Promoted the translation of religious classics into old English, thus more practical for its English citizens to read. Unifies England under Anglo-Saxon rule. Repulsed danes.
elected town governments that replaced traditional ruling of bishops with the rise of powerful merchants. Dealt with minor and serious concerns, challenged the authority of nominal lords. Represented wealth and manpower lords desperately needed. This was the first form of self government that would rise in cities such as London, and other such as Italy became sovereign states. Seat of Trencavel family then French Commune charted by Philip Augustus. Communes replace rule by bishop or lord, elect town government. Increasing wealth and education, Grew out of neighborhood organizations – rough equality. First form of self government