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45 Cards in this Set

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the theory that proposes that earth's outer shell consists of individual paltes that interact in various ways and thereby produce earthquakes, volcanoes, and the crust itself
plate tectonics
wehre 2 plates move apart, resulting in upswelling of maerial from the mantle to create *spreading centers*. CONSTRUCTIVE MARGINS
divergent boundries
where 2 plates move together, resulting in oceanic lithosphere descending beneath an overriding plate, eventually to be reobsorbed into the mantle (*subduction zones*), or possibly in the collison of 2 continental blocks to create a mountain system. DESTRUCTIVE MARGIN
convergent boundries
where 2 plates grind past each other w/o the production or destruction of lithosphere
transform fault boundries
plate boundry where lithosphere is destroyed
convergent boundries
also called subduction zones, because they are sites where lithosphere is descending (being subducted) into the asthenosphere
convergent boundries
convergent boundry which can result in volcanoes
oceanic-continental convergence
convergent boundry that creates mountains
continental-continental convergence
convergent boundry which can creates islands and volcanes
oceanic-oceanic convergence
what is lava?
magma that flows on the surface
what is the general location where most volcanoes occur? located at/near pacific plate.
ring of fire
what characteristics do you use to identify a specific mineral?
color, streak, hardness, fracture, cleavage, taste, specific gravity
the most abundant mineral group in earths' crust
felspar
which mineral reacts to acid?
calcite
concept that earths crust is "floating" in gravitation balance upon the material of the mantle
isostasy
results because old slabs of oceanic lithosphere are more dense than the underlying asthenosphere and "sink like a rock"
slab pull
gravity driven mechanism resutls from the elaveted position of the oceanic ridge, which causes slabs of lithosphere to "slide" down the flanks of the ridge
ridge push
this creates new seafloor, operates along oceanic ridge system
seafloor spreading
what are the 5 characteristic needed to define a mineral?
1. occur naturally
2. be inorganic
3. be a solid
4. possess orderly internal
structure
5. have definate chemical
composition
the smallest part of matter that still retains the characteristic of the individual element
atom
this is the basic building block
element
the small heavy core of an atom; contains most of its mass
nucleus
this determines the atomic number for the element
proton
electrically neutral
neutron
negative charge, located outside nucleus, has negligable mass
electron
has unequal number of electrons and protons; therefore produces a charge
ion
this is a negatively charged ion
anion
this is a positively charged ion
cation
this is the total number of neutons and protons in the nucleus
mass number
this is the variety of the same mineral that have different mass numbers; have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons
isotope
this is the most common mineral group; contains oxygen and silicon
silicates
regions consisting of large, relatively flat expanses of ancient metamorphic rocks w/in the continental interior are called:
shields
when an ceanic plate and an continental plate converge a _______ is formed along a subduction zone
oceanic trench
TRUE OR FALSE:
according to the theory of plate tectonics, plates interact mainly along plate boundries
true
at convergent boundries, two plates _______.
move together
TRUE OR FALSE:
Most of the largest plates contain large amounts of both oceanic and continental crust
true
most divergent plate boundries are located along _________.
oceanic ridges
TRUE OR FALSE:
earthquakes occur mainly along divergent plate boundries?
FALSE: most earthquakes occure at transform fault boundries.
this is the mechanism that has generated the floors of the world's oceans
seafloor spreading
this occurs beacuase the subducting lithosphere has a greater density than the underlying asthenosphere
subduction
all ferromagnesiam minerals contain ______ and/or _______.
iron ; magnesium
this type of fracture is how glass breaks; has a clamshell or rigididy effect
choncoidal fracture
TRUE OR FALSE:
bowens reaction series has to do with size and shape of minerals
FALSE:
Bowens reaction series has to do with the order or rate in which minerals crystalize- has nothing to do with size or shape
IGNEOUS ROCKS:
rocks that contain voids left by gases that escape as lava solidify is said to exhibit a _______ texture.
vesicular
TRUE OR FALSE:
Extrusive rocks generally have larger crystals than intrusive rocks
FALSE:
Larger crystals form intrusively- you can see crystals with naked eye. extrusive crystals are much smaller and require magnifying glass