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1317 Cards in this Set

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a Substance
A material with uniform properties throughout
e.g. salt, steel, gold, water.
Mass
A measure of the amount of matter in an object.
a Physical Property
of a substance is its density.
Density
the mass of an object made of the substance divided by it's volume.
Density formula
D=m/V
Physical Properties of substance: (6)
- color
- hardness
- ductility
- resistivity
- viscosity
- solubility
Capable
Handy
Derelicts
Read
Verizon
Successfully
Chemical Properties describe...
the ability of a substance to be changed into new substances
Phases of matter
Sold, liquid, and gas
describe a Solid
has a definite shape and volume
describe a Liquid
has definite volume and assumes the shape of its container
describe a Gas
will spread out to occupy the entire space of whatever container it's in.
Kinetic Theory of Matter states:
all matter consists of atoms or molecules in a state of constant motion.
a Plasma is:
a partially ionized gas in which some of the electrons are not bound to any atoms or molecules.
Plasmas are... (2 points)
electrically conductive and can be generated inside vacuum tubes with a beam of electrons

are the most common form of matter in the universe b/c stars are composed of plasmas.
Physical Properties of a Gas: (4)
Temperature (T)
Volume (V)
Mass (n), and
Pressure (P)
Lowest Possible Temperature (Celsius and Kelvin)
-273.15 Celsius
0 K
What determines temperature of a gas?
the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules of the gas
Mass of gas is measured in?
Moles (n)
a Mole of gas can be defined as...?
the number of molecules in the gas expressed in terms of Avogadros number
Avogadro's number?
6.02 x 10²³
the Pressure of a gas...
is the force the gas exerts on a wall of the container divided by the area of the wall
Pressure of a gas on a wall (formula)
P=F/A
SI unit of force is...
the newton (N)
SI unit of pressure is... (4 of them)
the pascal (Pa)= 101,325pa = 1 atm
the atmosphere (atm): 1 atm
the millimeters of mercury (mm Hg): 760mm
the pounds per square inch (lb/in₂, psi)=14.7
The Ideal Gas Law is based on...
the assumption that there are no forces acting between the molecules of the gas.
The ideal gas law (formula)
PV=nRT

P (pressure)
V (volume)
n (mass)
R (universal gas constant)
T (temperature)
Three (3) laws that rewrite the Ideal Gas Law
Boyle's
Charle's
Gay-Lussac's
Boyle's law, as it relates to the ideal gas law
the temperature is constant and pressure and volume are inversely related.
Charle's law, as it relates to the ideal gas law
pressure is constant and volume and temperature are directly related
Gay-Lussac's law, as it relates to the ideal gas law
Volume is constant
In terms of gas law, adding or removing heat...
will change the pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas.
The atomic theory of matter was first suggested by:
a Greek named Democritus.
Who expanded Democritus' idea of matter and when?
John Dalton, 1780s.
John Dalton's atomic model: (4 points)
- Matter is made up of atoms.
- Atoms of an element are similar to each other.
- Atoms of different elements are different from each other.
- Atoms combine with each other to form new kinds of compounds.
William Crokes created what? when? how?:
1870s; cathrode rays in a vacuum by connecting a high voltage battery to anode and cathode
J.J. Thompson discovered what? when? relevancy?
1896; showed that cathode rays were composed of negatively charged particles with a mass almost 2 thousand times smaller than the mass of the hydrogen atom.
Thus: Thompson discovered the electron.
What model of the atom did Thompson develop?
The Plum Pudding model
The Plum Pudding Model (2 points)
the atom consists of electrons equally mixed in a sphere of positive material.

The electrons were the plums and the positively charged matter was the pudding.
Radioactivity was discovered when?
1896;
Ernest Rutherford tested what?
Thompson's model
Rutherford's model of the atom (4 points)
1. Most of an atom consists of empty space.
2. At the center of the atom is a nucleus that contains most of the mass and all of the positive charge of the atom.
3. The region of the space outside the nucleus is occupied by electrons.
4. The atom is neutral because the positive charge on the nucleus equals the sum of the negative charges of the electrons.
Niels Bohr model of the atom was developed when? And, was based on: (2 points)
1913;

based on recent discoveries in quantum mechanics and the discrete spectrum of light emitted by hydrogen atoms.
Niels Bohr model of the atom: (3 points)
1. Electrons orbit the nucleus, but only in discrete orbits or energy levels.
2. Electrons don't emit radiation when orbiting the nucleus.
3. When an electron moves from an outer orbit or higher energy level to an inner orbit or lower energy level, it emits a photon with an energy equal to the energy difference.
What is a compound? (2 points)
two or more elements that have been chemically combined.

There is always a ratio of elements.
What is an element?
a substance that can't be broken down into other substances.
What is a molecule?
the smallest particle of substance that can exist independently and has all of the properties of that substance.
What is a mixture?
any combination of two or more substances in which the substances keep their own properties.
Some common compounds: (4)
Acid
Bases
Salts
Oxides
What is an acid?
An acid contains hydrogen ions (H⁺)

Have a sour taste.
What is a base?
All bases contain hydroxl ions (OH⁻)

Bases have a bitter taste.
Are in many cleaning products.
What's an indicator?
a substance that changes color when it comes in contact with an acid or a base.
e.g. litmus paper: blue turns red in an acid; red turns blue in a base.
What does neutral mean?
a substance that is neither acid nor base.
How are salts formed? What is a byproduct?
Salt is formed when an acid and a base combine chemically. Water is also formed.
What is neutralization?
When an acid and a base combine chemically and a water is formed.
What is an oxide?
a compound formed when oxygen combines with another element.
What is a chemical reaction?
When two or more elements or compounds react to one another, and one or more substances are formed.
What happens in exothermic chemical reactions?
Energy is released.
What happens in endothermic chemical reactions?
Energy is required.
What happens in a chemical equilibrium?
it occurs when the quantities of reactants and products are no longer changing, but the reaction may still proceed forward and backward.
What can be said of the rate of reaction in a chemical equilibrium?
The rate of forward reaction must equal the rate of backward reaction and the reaction is said to be in a steady state.
forward
backward
steady
A chemical equation represents what?
the reactants and products of a reaction.

The mass of the reactants is equal to the mass of the products. i.e. same number of atoms on both sides.
Protons are...
- positively charged
- 2000 times the mass of of an electron
- the magnitude of its charge is the same as an electron.
Atomic number is...
The number of protons in the nucleus
an atom's charge is what? why?
neutral, because the number of electrons equals the number of protons.
Neutrons, compared to protons, are...
are slightly more massive, and have no charge.
Isotopes of an element...
have the same number of protons (atomic number) in the nucleus, but differ in atomic mass (number of nucleons).
Atomic mass units
The mass of an element on the periodic table
Mass number of an atom is the...
sum of its protons and neutrons
At what levels do electrons, orbiting the nucleus, occupy?
Quantized or discrete levels.
The electrons closest to the nucleus have what amount of energy?
the least amount
According to the Pauli exclusion principle...
Electrons in an atom all have to be different, i.e. have different quantum numbers.
At higher energy levels, electrons can have more...
angular momentum
In electrons, having more angular momentum is having more...
quantum numbers
What energy levels are filled first in atoms?
The lowest levels or energy.
How are elements in the periodic table built?
by adding protons, neutrons, and electrons to the hydrogen nucleus.
Atoms react with each other when...
their outer levels are unfilled.
Which elements always have their outer energy levels filled?
the inert gases
Electrons move to higher energy levels when...
they gain energy by absorbing a photon or by a collision.
An electron cannot leave one level until...
it has enough energy to reach the next level.
What are excited electrons?
are electrons that have absorbed energy and have moved farther way from the nucleus.
The Periodic Table of Elements is...
an arrangement of the elements in rows and columns, so that it's easy to locate elements with similar properties.
the periods of the PTE, are...
the horizontal rows of the table.
the vertical columns of the PTE, are called...
groups or families
Elements in family have...
similar properties
There are three types of elements...
1. metals
2. non-metals
3. metalloids
With the exception of hydrogen, all elements in Groups 1 can be called...
alkali metals
Common physical properties of Group 1 elements are...
- shiny
- softer & less dense than other metals
- the most chemically active
Group 2 elements can be called...
Alkaline earth metals
Alkali Earth metals (group 2 metals) can be described as being...
- harder
- denser
- have higher melting points
- are chemically active
Elements found between Period 4 to 7, under Group 4-12 can be categorized as...
transition elements
Transitions elements (period 4-7, groups 4-12) can be described as...
- hard
- have high melting points
- compounds are colorful
Nonmetals are not easy to recognize as metals because...
they do not always share physical properties
The general properties of nonmetals are...
- dull
- brittle
- not good conductors or heat/electricity
Nonmetals include these states of matter:
- Solid
- Liquid (1, bromine)
- Gas
What's the range of number of electrons that nonmetals can have in their outermost energy levels? And the result of this?
4-8 electrons

The outer levels are usually filled with eight electrons.
The outstanding chemical property of nonmetals is they...
react with metals
In terms of chemistry, the difference in the number of _______ is the cause of the differences between _____ and ____?
electrons;
metals, nonmetals
Halogens can be found in group ____?
17
Halogens combine readily with _____ to form _____?
metals, to form salts
Describe metalloids
They have properties in between metals and nonmetals.
Physical properties of metalloids
1. Solids having the appearance of metals.
2. White or gray, but not shiny
3. conduct electricity, but not as well as a metal.
Chemical properties of metalloids
1. all have some characteristics of metal and nonmetals.
2. their properties do not follow patterns like metals and nonmetals. Each must be studied individually.
Metalloids are found between what two groups?
Group 13 to 16.

They do not occupy the entire group.
Which metalloid is a semi-conductor?
Silicon
Describe semiconductors
has a conductivity between that of an insulator and a conductor.
What are valence electrons?
- The outermost electrons in atoms.
- They are the only electrons involved in the bonding process.
- They determine properties of the element.
A chemical bond is...
a force of attraction that holds atoms together.
When atoms are chemically bonded, they cease to...
they cease to have their individual properties.
A covalent bond is formed when...
2 atoms share electrons in order to get completely filled shells.
Covalent bonding happens between...
nonmetals
Covalent compounds are...
compounds whose atoms are joined by covalent bonds.
An ionic bond is...
a bond formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to the other.
Ionic bonds happen when...
Metals and nonmetals bond.
Ions are...
atoms with an unequal number of protons and electrons.
To determine whether an ion is positive or negative...
compare the number of protons (+charge) to the electrons (- charge).
Ionic compounds are...
Compounds that result from the transfer of metal atoms to nonmetal atoms.
Metalic bonding exists..
only in metals.
In metals, the electrons are not...
fixed to any particular nuclei and are free to move.
Hydrongen bonding is an example of...
a force that acts between two molecules of a liquid or a solid and holds the molecules together.
An example of hydrogen bonding is...
the water molecule
What does it mean when a bond is identified as polar?
When the total charge of a molecule is zero, and, when one end of the molecule (an atom) is negatively charged and the other end (the other atom) is positively charged.
Hydrogen bonds can occur...
within and between other molecules.

For example: 2 strands of DNA; water molecules and amino acids of proteins are involved in maintaining the protein's proper shape.
In a composition reaction...
two or more substances combine to form a compound.
Formula of a composition reaction:
A + B ---> AB
In a decomposition reaction...

example?
a compound breaks down into two or more simpler substances.

Ex: electric current splits water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen gases.
Basic formula of a decomposition reaction:
AB ----> A + B
In a single replacement reaction...

example?
a free element replaces an element that is part of a compound.

Ex: Iron plus copper sulfate yields iron sulfate plus copper.
Basic formula of a single replacement reaction:
A + BX ---> AX + B
In a double replacement reaction...

example?
parts of two compounds replace each other.

Ex: Sodium chloride plus mercury nitrate yields sodium nitrate plus mercury chloride.
Basic formula for a double replacement reaction?
AX + BY ---> AY + BX
Dynamics is the study of...
the relationship between motion and the forces affecting motion.
Forces cause...
objects to move and can be understood as a push or a pull.
Gravity is...
the force that causes objects to fall to Earth.
The universal law of gravity states...
that there is a gravitational attraction between all objects on Earth.
Universal Law of Gravity equation:
Where:

G = the universal gravitational constant
d= is the distance between the two masses (m)
Coulomb's Law
Electrostatic forces between objects are attractive when the charges are different and repulsive when they are the same.

It's what keeps electrons rotating around the nucleus in atoms.
Coulomb's Law explains what kind of bonding?
ionic
Unlike charges, magnetic forces are...
polar; poles come in pairs.
When a charge is stationary, it produces an _______ (2 points)
an electric field around it.
When a charge is moving, it produces ________ (2 points).
circular magnetic fields that are perpendicular to the direction of motion.
The existence of nuclear forces is apparent from the fact that...
the repulsive electrostatic force between protons does not drive the protons apart.
When protons are very close to each other, there is a(n)....
attractive force called the strong force.
Neutrons act as a ______ in a nucleus? Doing what for the atom?
glue; making it more stable
The lack of stability in large nuclei can be understood from the fact that all....
protons in a nucleus are repelling each other, and nuclear forces only affect the adjacent proton or neutron.
Statics is the study of...
physical systems at rest or moving with a constant speed.
Static force occurs when...
the net force acting on an object is zero.
In terms of static force, describe what's going on when a book is resting on a table.
When a book is resting on a table, the force of gravity is in equilibrium with the force of the table acting upward on the book. The force of the table on the book is called normal force.
Static friction describes...
the force of friction of two surfaces that are in contact but don't have any motion relative to each other, such as a block sitting on an inclined plane.
Kinetic friction describes...
the force of friction of two surfaces in contact with each other when there is relative motion between the surfaces.
4 rules of Static & Kinetic friction
1. The materials that make up the surfaces determines the magnitude of the frictional force.
2. The frictional force is independent of the area of contact between the two surfaces.
3. The direction of the frictional force is opposite to the direction of motion for kinetic friction.
4. The frictional force is proportional to the normal force between the two surfaces in contact.
Newton's first law of motion
an object at rest will remain at rest and an object in motion will remain in motion at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force.

This is also the law of inertia and can be derived from Newton's second law.
Newton's second law of motion
if a net force acts on an object, it will cause the object to accelerate.
Newton's Third Law of motion
forces on objects come from other objects and hence always exists in pairs.
The force on object 1 on object 2 is equal and opposite to the force of object 2 on object 1.
Newton's 3rd law of motion lead mathematically to... and which is...
the law of conservation of momentum, which governs a collision or any interaction between two objects.
Momentum is (describe equation)
The mass of an object times its velocity.
When there is a collision between two objects, the momentum...
before the collision is equal to the momentum after the collision.
Which of Newton's law leads to the concept of work?
Newton's 2nd law.
Work is...
force acting through a distance
Energy is...
the ability to do work
Kinetic energy is...
the energy of motion.
Potential energy is...
when the force depends on the relative locations of the objects, as is the case of electric and gravitational forces.

Ex.: the force exerted by a spring depends on how much the the spring is stretched or compressed and is a conservative force.
One of the great historical achievements of Newton's laws was...
to derive Keplar's laws of planetary motion.
In terms of planetary motion, Newtown explained why...
1. planets travel in elliptical paths,

2. planets speed up when they are closest to the sun

3. planets obey the laws of periods concerning the time it takes for a planet to make one revolution.
In terms of solving problems involving force and motion, you must calculate all...
3 variables
Problems involving inclined planes require considering the ______ and ______________.
the vector of force

and calculating the components of the force perpendicular to the surface of the plane and parallel to it.
Examples of motion in two dimensions
1. projectile motion at the surface of the Earth. There's vertical and horizontal motion to consider, which can be solved separately and combined.

2. inclined planes; required considering the vector nature of force and calculating the components of the force perpendicular to the surface of the plane and parallel to it.

3. solving the motion of an object not near the surface of the Earth.

4. the problem of circular motion
An object near the Earth's surface moves in a...
parabola
Solving the motion of an object not near the surface of Earth means taking into consideration the...
Universal Law of Gravity
The problem of circular motion. Explain and give an example.
When a force is applied to a moving mass in a direction that is perpendicular to the motion, the object changes direction. The change in direction constitutes an acceleration which is called a centripetal acceleration.

An example, when an automobile turns a corner.
Centripetal motion
When a force is applied to a moving mass in a direction that is perpendicular to the motion, the object changes direction. The change in direction constitutes an acceleration, which is called a centripetal acceleration.
A classic example of the conservation of mechanical energy is...
the pendulum
Describe the conservation of mechanical energy that occurs in a swinging pendulum:
The falling motion of the bob is accompanied by an increase in speed.

As the bob loses height and potential energy, it gains speed and kinetic energy.

The sum of potential energy and kinetic energy remains constant;

The total of the two forms of mechanical energy is conserved.
A pendulum is considered a case of...
simple harmonic motion
Harmonic motion occurs...
when the force is proportional to the displacement.

While the gravitational force on the pendulum's bob is constant, what is relevant is the component of the force in the direction of motion.

This component is proportional to the displacement.
Hooke's Law
In springs, when the component of force in the direction of motion is proportional to the displacement.

F(elastic) = kx
a mechanical wave is...
a disturbance that propagates through a medium at a speed characteristic of the medium.

There is a transfer of energy, there is not a bulk transfer of matter.

ex. tuning fork
the speed of a wave is...
the speed the disturbance propagates through the medium.
the period of a wave is...
the time between disturbances
the frequency of a wave is...
the inverse of the period
the unit measure for frequencies is...
the hertz, which is 1/second
the amplitude of a wave is...
a measure of how much the medium is being distorted.

In the case of water waves, the amplitude is the height of the wave.
the wavelength of a wave is...
the distance between the pulses or individual disturbances.
in transverse waves, the...
disturbance of the medium is perpendicular to the direction of motion of the disturbance.

ex: water waves
in longitudinal waves, the...
disturbance is parallel to the direction of motion.

ex.: sound
a tuning fork creates...
alternate areas of compression and rarefaction of the air.
In the case of sound waves, frequency produces the sensation of...
pitch
In the case of sound waves, amplitude produces the sensation of...
loudness
The pitch used for tuning in Western music is...
440 hz
Visible light, radio waves, x-rays, microwaves, gamma rays, and radar consist of...
vibrating electric and magnetic fields.
Visible light, radio waves, x-rays, microwaves, gamma rays, and radar are _____ but not _______, because they ____________.
waves, but not mechanical waves, because they travel through a vacuum.
The speed of radiation is...
186,000 miles per second or 3x10⁸ meters per second
Who derived the speed of light and when and how?
Clerk Maxwell, 19th century, from measurements in electricity and magnetism.
How are electric and magnetic fields situated from one another? Or, in other words, they are _____
they are perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation of the wave

or, in other words, they are transverse
Electromagnetic radiation is a ______ wave.
transverse
AM radio waves have a wavelength and frequency of what?
wavelength: 100 meters
frequency: 10⁶ Hz
Gamma rays have a frequency of and what kind of corresponding wavelength?
frequency: 10⁹⁺⁹⁺⁶
wavelength: very small
Seismic waves are _____ waves
elastic
What are the 2 types of seismic waves?
Primary & secondary
Primary waves are _____ waves, and are the ______ traveling.
longitudinal, fastest
Secondary waves are _____ waves, and are _______ traveling.
transverse, slower (than P-waves)
S waves do not travel through...
liquids.
The most common cause for water waves is....
wind
What is fetch?
the distance the wind blows
What determines how big wave ripples will become?
The strength, fetch, and length of gust (duration).
Water waves are divided into several parts, what are they?
The crest
The trough or valley
Wave length
Wave height
Wave period
The crest of a wave is...
the highest point on wave
The trough or valley of a way is the...
lowest point between 2 waves
The wavelength of a wave is....
the horizontal, either between the crests or troughs, of two consecutive waves.
Wave height is...
a vertical distance between a wave's crest and the next trough.
The wave period can be measured by...
picking a stationary point and counting the seconds it takes for two consecutive crests or troughs to pass it.
If you were to follow a single drop of water during a passing wave, what would you see?
you would see it move in a vertical circle, returning to a point near its original position at the wave's end.

These vertical circles are more obvious at the surface.

As depth, increases, their effects slowly decrease until completely disappearing about half a wavelength below the surface.
Superposition means...
that two or more different waves can be in the same medium andn at the same time.
In constructive interference....
the amplitudes of the different waves reinforce one another and the resulting wave has a greater amplitude that the superposed waves.
In destructive interference,
the amplitudes cancel out to a certain degree.
In the case of sound waves, an example of interference is the phenomena of...
beats
If you superpose two sounds with frequencies that are close in value (e.g. by 10Hz), what happens?
There will be a variation in loudness that depends on the difference between the two frequencies.
A phenomena common to all waves is the...
doppler effect
In the doppler effect...
if the source of the wave is moving towards the observer, the wavelength is shorter than it would be if the source was stationary.

Likewise, if the source is moving away from the observer, the wavelength is longer.
The Doppler effect is used to measure...by...
the speed of moving objects, by pulsing radar, with a definite wavelength and frequency, at the object. When the pulses hit the object they are reflected. the frequency of the reflected pulses is measured.
When a wave is incident upon a boundary between two different media (e.g. light in a vacuum incident upon glass), what happens?
Part of the wave is reflected and part of the wave is refracted.
When a wave is incident upon a boundary between two different media, the refracted wave ______
continues to propagate in the new medium.
When a wave is incident upon a boundary between two different media, when is a refracted wave greater?
the less the difference that exists between the two media is, the greater the amount of refracted wave.
When sound traveling in air hits a brick wall, the....
intensity of the reflected sound will be much greater than the intensity of the sound wave propagated inside the wall.
The intensity of a wave is...
a measure of how much energy is being transported by the wave.
Diffraction refers to...
the fact that waves have a tendency to spread out in a medium.
In diffraction, waves have a tendency to spread out in a medium. Why? What is an implication of this process?
Because a wave is a disturbance in a medium and each point of disturbance is a source of further disturbances.

This means waves can travel around barriers placed in the medium.
The wavelength of light can be measured by...
combining the phenomena of diffraction and interference.
Because of diffraction, when light is incident upon a double slit, what happens?
Each slit will become a new source of light.
When light is incident upon a double slit, the two beams will _____ and ______.
superimpose and interfere
When light is incident upon a double slit, each slit will become a new source of light, and there will be ______ and _____ interference, which will...that can be...
constructive & destructive;

will produce dark and bright lines on a screen.

the distance between the dark lines, the wavelength of the incident light can be measured.
Because light has such a small wavelength, it can be assumed...
light consists of rays traveling in a straight line
Snell's law describes...
the phenomena of how light does not change direction if a ray hits the surface of a glass perpendicularly. When it hits glass at an angle there is a reflected ray and a refracted ray.
A refracted ray changes direction, when incident upon a smooth glass, because...
the speed of light in a glass is less than the speed of light in a vacuum.
Wave-particle duality is the...
exhibition of both wavelike and particle-like properties by photons (particles of light), electrons, protons, and neutrons.
All objects exhibit wave-particle duality to some extent, but for ______ objects the...
macroscopic objects, the quantum mechanical wavelength is so small it can't be observed.
The existence of shells and energy levels in atoms can be understood from the phenomena of __________.
Standing waves
Standing waves occur from...
the interference of waves traveling in opposite directions but having the same frequency and wavelength.
In standing waves, there's no ________, but _______ creates ____ and _____.
net propagation of energy, but interference creates nodes and anti-nodes.
Shells are created in atoms because...
the wavelength of the electron has to be some multiple of the orbit size.
In the lowest energy level, the wavelength of the electron is...
exactly equal to the circumference of the orbit.
The particle-lie property of electromagnetic radiation was discovered with the...
photoelectric effect
In the photoelectric effect...
light striking a metal surface causes electrons to be emitted from the metal.
A photon is a particle of light that can have ____ and _____ but without ______.
momentum and energy but without mass.
For photons/electromagnetic radiation, radio waves behave more like ______ than _____, and gamma rays behave more like _____ than ______.
waves than particles
particles than waves.
Electrostatics is the study of....
the study of electric charges
An electroscope is...
a simple device used to indicate the existence of a positive or negative charge.
Describe a simple (and common) electroscope.
it's made up of a metal know with very lightweight leaves of aluminum foil attached to it.

When a charged object touches the knob, the leaves push away from each other because like charges repel.
Grounding is the...
removal of static electricity by conduction.
A metal rod can be given a charge by placing it in _____.
water
The concentration of charge is:
voltage
Describe what happens when you put a metal rod in water.
Water molecules are polar. Metal consists of a lattice of positively charged nuclei in a sea of electrons. Water molecules surround a metallic nuclei and cause it to go into solution, leaving behind a negative charge on the metal rod.
Voltage is measured in units called:
volts
In a battery, voltage difference causes...
electrons to flow at a slow drift velocity from one terminal to another.

at the same time, metal ions will reattach to one terminal and be removed from the other until the battery goes dead.
The unit of measurement for current is:
ampere
Magnets exert force on ______ and on _______.
other magnets, and on electric charges.
A magnet creates a ______ in the space around it, and it is this that_______.
magnetic field; exerts force.
Magnetic fields are created by...
moving charges
A current flowing in a straight wire produces a....
a circular magnetic field pointing in a direction determined by the direction of current flow.
A current flowing in a straight wire produces a circular magnetic field that has what kind of polarity?
none
A current flowing through a wire formed into a loop or circle, what happens? (2 points)
the magnetic field lines will wenter one side of the loop and exit the other side.

The side they exit is the north pole, and the side they enter is the south pole.
What can you do with a wire to make a strong magnet. What kind of magnet is this?
By wrapping wire around a pole, you can stack current loops

electromagnet
______ behave like tiny magnets.
Electrons
Electrons behave like tiny magnets because....
they are rotating about their own axis.
Besides creating magnetic fields by rotating about their own axis, electrons also magnetic fields by...
rotating around the nuclueus
Other than electrons, what other subatomic particle produces a magnetic field?
proton
Most substances are not magnetized because...
the magnetic fields produced by electrons, atoms, and protons cancel out.
A few substances are ___-magnetic, but all other substances are ___-magnetic.
diamagnetic; paramagnetic.
With paramagnetic substances...
a north pole induces a south pole and the paramagnet is attracted to the magnet.
When an object is brought close to a magnet, the object will become magnetized, in other words,.....
a north pole and south pole will be induced on the object.
Ferromagnetism is a special case of...
paramagnetism
The main ferromagnetic materials are...
iron, nickel, and cobalt.
Ferromagnetic materials are connected in such a way that... (2 points)
small magnetic domains are created where the magnetic poles of the atoms are aligned.

The north and south poles of the domains are random within the substance, but an external magnetic field will line them up and a permanent magnet can be created.
How does a compass work? (3 ponts)
The Earth produces a magnetic field.

The field is directed away from the geographic south pole, circles the globe, and enters the geographic north pole.

The magnet in a compass lines up with the Earth's magnetic field.
Explain how telegraphs work?
electromagnets; when a telegraph key is pushed, current flows through a circuit, turning on an electromagnet which attracts an iron bar. The iron bar hits a sounding bar that responds with a click.
An electric motor uses a(n) ______ to change electric energy into mechanical energy.
electromagnet
Dynamics is the study of...
forces and how forces produce motion.
Kinematics is the study of...
motion without regard to the cause of motion.
Objects near the surface of Earth accelerate at:
9.8 m/s2.
As a falling objects moves closer to the center of the Earth, it's...
acceleration increases slightly since the force of gravity increases slightly.
Put simply, the law of conservation of energy is that... (2 points)
energy never disappears

it just transforms from one form to another.
Work is performed whenever...
a force acts through a distance.
Energy is defined as...
the ability to do work.
Kinetic energy is...
the energy of motion
An object located on the top of a building has ________ energy because it will acquire _____ energy if it falls.
gravitational potential; kinetic
In general, mechanical potential energy is _____ or _____ energy.
stored or future
A coiled spring has _____ energy.
elastic
Chemical energy is the energy....and can be...
stored in atoms and molecules

and can be transformed into heat energy by various chemical reactions.
Nuclear energy is stored in... and is released....
the nuclei of atoms; in nuclear reactors in the form of heat and radiation.
The kinetic theory states that...
matter consists of molecules in continual random motion.
The state of matter depends on...
the amount of kinetic energy the molecules possess.
It takes ____ to change the phase of a substance.
energy
The melting point of water is 0 Celsius, at which point will ice convert to water. During this phase change, at what temperature will be the ice & liquid water? Why?
0 Celsius. Because the heat energy is being used to change the phase of the water.
Heat is called thermal energy to distinguish it from....
mechanical energy
Another form of thermal energy is _____ energy.
internal energy
Internal energy is...
the mechanical energy possessed by the atoms and molecules in an object.

When we add heat to an object, its internal energy increases.
When hot and cold items contact each other, what happens?
Thermal equilibrium; heat will flow from the hot object to the cold object until the temperatures are the same.
The Kelvin scale is based on measurements of...
the temperatures of gases and their volumes.
If you add one calorie of heat to gram of, for example, lead, the temperature will increase _____.
32 degrees celsius
Liquid water has twice the _____ heat of _____?
specific; ice
Conduction occurs when...
2 objects are in thermal contact and heat from the hotter object flows into the cooler object.
Convection occurs when...
heat is transported by the movement of heated substance.
A hot object emits... (2 words)
infrared radiation
How does a thermos bottle or Dewar flask work?
The double walls that make up the containers sandwich a vacuum, which greatly lessens thermal equilibrium.
Internal energy and heat are forms of energy because they have the ability to...
do work (= force times distance)
The mechanical equivalent of heat is:
4.186 joules = 1 calorie
If you stir up a quantity of water until the temperature rises by 1 degree celsius, you will find that it required how much energy?
4.186 joules of mechanical energy
Mechanical energy is not conserved because...
of the force of friction
The first law of thermodynamics states...
that mechanical energy and internal energy are conserved.

Or, in other words, the increase of the internal energy of a system is equal to the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system.
The law of conservation of energy is frequently stated to be:
Energy can be transformed, but it can neither be created nor destroyed.
The zeroth law of thermodynamics states, in effect, , that:
you can measure the temperature of a substance with a thermometer
The third law of thermodynamics is:
that a temperature ob absolute zero can never be reached.
The second law of thermodynamics can be formulated a number of different ways:
1. heat cannot flow from a colder to a hotter object. Heat always flows from the hotter to the colder object unil the temperatures are the same.

2. A gas will always occupy the entire vessell containing it in a uniform way. There are no parts of the vessel where the density is zero or very low.

3. The amount of disorder in a system is called entropy: the entropy of a closed system always increases.

4. No machine can be imagined that converts heat energy to work energy with 100% efficiency.
Describe getting out of bed in terms of energy, force, and work.
We need to exert our muscle-force over a distance to get out of bed in the morning and we can only do this if we have enough energy.
Equation: the of conservation of momentum
F=ma
What is the definition of energy?
there is no definition; there are only definitions of particular kinds of energy.
Whenever physicists have discovered energy not being conserved, they have been able to:
define a new energy that would save the principle.
Equation: potential energy in terms of the height of a pendulum bob
PE = (mass)(gravity)(height)
What kind of force is gravity? Why?
Conservative; because a potential energy can be defined.
What are the conservative forces?
gravity
electrical
magnetic
elastic
The sum of kinetic and potential energy is a...
constant
The first law of thermodynamics is an example of inventing a new energy called...
internal energy
Internal energy explains what happens to what and when, and why?
mechanical energy when it disappears, because it's transformed into the internal energy of objects exerting the forces that produce mechanical energy.
The photoelectric effect refers to:
the phenomena of light causing electrons to be ejected from a metal.
In terms of the photoelectric effect, energy is conserved if you assume:
light is composed of photons and each photon has the energy expressed in terms of Plank's constant and the frequency of the light.
Equation: Plank's constant
E = hf
The form of energy associated with mass:
E=mc(squared)
Explain the conversion between mass and energy
1. the forces binding neutrons and protons together are called nuclear forces or strong forces. The potential energy associated with these forces is called nuclear binding energy.
When neutrons and protons become bound in a nucleus, the mass decreases but there is an increase in the binding energy.
Also, protons are not the only positively charged particles. There are positrons, which have the same mass as an electron.
In positron-electron annihilation, the mass of the particles is converted into the energy of a photon.
The most common nuclear reaction is:
radioactive decay
Radioactive decay occurs when...
a nucleus is unstable
There are no stable nuclides with atomic numbers greater than:
83 (bismuth); also, many isotopes with smaller atomic numbers are unstable.
Nuclides decay by emitting:
alpha particles,
beat particles
positrons, and
gamma rays
What's an alpha particle?
Nucleus of a helium atom
What's a beat particle?
Electrons
What's a positron?
Elementary particle with the same mass as an electron, but with a positive charge.
What are gamma rays?
photons
Besided emitting all sorts of particles, how else do nuclides decay?
by capturing an electron from one of the inner shells. The new nuclide created by the decay may also be unstable.
Nuclei decay at different...
rates
An important quantity in nuclear physics is the binding energy per...
nucleon
The binding energy of a nucleus is the...
sum of the masses of the neutrons and protons minus the mass of the nucleus.
In terms of binding energy, there is a ______ in ______ because...
a decrease in mass, because the mass is converted into binding energy according to E=mc(squar'd)
The nuclei with the greatest binding energy per nucleon is ____; which is why....
helium; which is why alpha particles are frequently emitted when nuclei decay.
What causes the lack of stability in bigger nuclides?
the decrease in binding energy per nucleon
Describe how nuclear fission power.
Uranium-235 splits into krypton-92 and barium-141 plus three neutrons when it absorbs a neutron.
If there is enough fissionable uranium, a chain reaction can occur.
In a nuclear power plant, the chain reaction is controlled with chromium and carbon rods. The fragments have a tremendous amount of kinetic energy, which is used to heat up water for steam turbines.
Nuclear fusion occurs where?
In the sun and in hydrogen bombs, when hydrogen isotopes combine to form helium.
In both fission and fusion reactions, there is a ______ in binding energy and a corresponding ____________.
decrease; release of energy
Radioactive nuclitides are used for what?
treatment of cancer cells. The radiation kills both cancer and healthy cells. The healthy cells are better able to repair themselves.
Visible light is part of the _________ spectrum, and consists of _______.
electrostatic; photons
Photons have both ______ and ______ properties.
wave and particle
Give a non-standard description of wavelength sizes with respect to the following radiation types:

- radio waves
- microwaves
- infrared radiation
- visible light
- ultraviolet radiation
- X-rays
- gamma rays
football field : radio wave
insects : microwaves
point of a needle : infrared radiation
protozoa : visible light
molecule : ultraviolet radiation
atoms : x-rays
nuclei : gamma rays
Visible light and other electromagnetic radiation can be _______ because the...
polarized; because the electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the wave.
Polarized light has vibrations confined to....
a single plane
How do Polaroid sheets work?
the block all vibrations except those in a single plane.

Polaroid sheets are made up of long molecules that are aligned in one direction. Only light waves parallel to the molecules passes through.
Fiber optics works because...
light inside the fibers are internally refracted so that it stays inside the fiber until it reaches its destination on the other end.
Total internal refraction happens when...
a ray of light is incident upon a surface, and the angle of incidence is too small, there will be no refracted ray.
How is a convex lens shaped?
It's thicker in the middle than at the edges
Convex lens causes...
parallel beams of light to converge at a point called the focal point.
A convex lens can create what between its focal point and itself.
small inverted images of objects
1 pound = ? newtons
4.4 newtons
Power is defined by what equation?
P = WIt
What is the rate at which work is done?
power
A watt is 1 ? per second
joule
a horse power is ? (number) ? (unit) per second?
550 foot-pounds
A lever enables a human to lift heavy things by...
transferring a small force exerted for a big distance to a large force exerted for a small distance.
When is the efficiency of a simple machine at 100%?
when there's no friction
The mechanical advantage is the...
ratio of the input force to the output force or the output distance to the input distance.
Friction is defined as...
the work output divided by the work input.

The more efficient a system is, the less energy that is lost within that system.
Chemical reactions are...
the interactions of substances resulting in the chemical change of the substances.
Chemical reations involve the _____ and ______ of chemical bonds.
breaking and forming
Reactants are the...
original substances that interact to form the resulting products.
Endothermic chemical reactions require the...
input of energy
Exothermic chemical reactions ______ energy with ______ formation.
release energy with product formation
______ is conserved in chemical reactions, because....
Mass; because the energies of the chemical bonds are so small that the change in mass is negligible.
Nuclear (or, atomic) reactions are....
reactions that change the composition or structure of atomic nuclei.
Nuclear reactions change the number of ...
protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
The two main types of nuclear reactions are...
fission (splitting of nuclei)
fusion (joining of nuclei)
In nuclear reactions, the ______ energies are so _____ that...
binding energies are so great that the change in masses is measurable
The basic unit of charge in electricity in the SI system of units is the...
ampere
When two parallel wires, 1 meter long 1 meter apart, have currents of 1 amp flowing through each of them, the force between the wires will be...
2 x 10^-7 newtons
Why is there force between parallel electrical lines?
The force arises because a current carrying wire produces circular magnetic fields and magnetic fields exert a force on a current carrying wire.
A coulomb is defined as...
the amount of charge transported by 1 amp of current in one second.

1 coulomb = 1 amp x 1 second
What did the Millikan oil-drop experiment determine, and how?
The charge on an electron was -1.6x10^-19 coulombs.

The charge was measured by measuring the acceleration of tiny oil drops that picked up extra electrons in a electric field.
Describe what's happening in a battery at its terminals
The positive terminal will have a lower density of electrons on it than the negative terminal. This means the potential energy of the electrons on one terminal will be greater than the potential energy of the electrons on the other terminal.
In terms of a better, potential is a property of ______ in the vicinity of charges.
space
The potential energy of a charge is measured in...
volts
Volts is a unit equal to:
one joule divided by one coulomb
The two terminals on a battery produce a potential ______ (represented by what unit?)
difference (V)
When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery, a current will flow in the wires because...
the potential difference produces an electric field in the wire and the electric field exerts a force on the electrons, which are free to move in a conductor.
Electrons in a conductor move very _______, because...
slowly (1 to 2 centimeters per hour); because, they bump into the positively charged nuclei of the metal.
If you double the length of a wire, the values of electric field, electron speed, and current will be reduced by ______?
half
If you double the diameter of a electric wire, the current will ... Why?
increase by a factor of four; because there will be four times as many electrons drifting through the wire.
The resistance of a wire is the...
ratio of the voltage difference defined by Ohm's law.
An ohm is defined as...
1 volt divided by 1 amp
Electricity can change the _________ of a material.
chemical composition
Resistors are used to...
regulate volume on electronic devices, or to dim lights in a dimmer switch.
Ohm's law states:
(equation)
V= I x R

V= voltage difference
I = current
R= resistance
Resistance is measured in:
Ohms
A material through which electrical chargers do not move easily:
insulator
an electric current is...
a path along which electrons flow
A series circuit is...
one where the electrons have only one path along which they can move.
A parallel circuit is...
one where the electrons have more than one path to move along.
What does a voltmeter do?
measures the potential energy of a point on an electric circuit
What does an ammeter do?
measure current on a circuit
Tectonic plates are...
rigid blocks of Earth's crust and upper mantle, and make up the lithosphere.
The major plates of the lithosphere are named after what?
the continents they are "transporting"
Volcanoes, mountain ranges, and earthquake zones are usually located where?
at plate boundaries, where the plates interact by spreading apart, pressing together, or sliding past each other
Rifting is a process when...
boundaries form between spreading plates where the crust is forced apart
What happens during subduction? When does this usually happen?
a process in which a dense plate collides with a less dense plate, and slides under the lighter one and plunges into the mantle.
Subduction happens in the...
subduction zone
A subduction zone is usually seen ...
on the sea-floor as a deep depression called a trench
Evidence that supported the theory of plate tectonics include...
the fit of continents, fossils, similarities of rock type and rock structure, and Earth magnetism
Who advanced the theory of continental drift?
Alfred Wegener
Who suggested that 200 million years ago there was a supercontinent called Pangaea?
Alfred Wegener
The theory of continental drift and Pangaea were advanced by who and when?
Alfred Wegener, 1915
What fossil evidence supports plate tectonic theory, and why?
the mesosaur fossil, which is found only in eastern South America and Southern Africa.
What geological evidence supports a supercontinent?
Rocks in eastern Brazil and rocks found in northwestern Africa.

The Appalachians in the U.S. and mountain ranges in Europe.
Orogeny is the term given to...
natural mountain building
The physical composition of mountains include what rock types?
- igneous
- metamorphic
- sedimentary
Name the different types of mountains.
- Folded
- Fault-block
- Dome
- Upwarped
- Volcanism
What are folded mountains? Give real examples.
they are produced by the folding of rock layers during their formation. This type includes the highest of mountains.

Examples: Alps, Himalayas
What are fault-block mountains? Give real examples.
Are created when plate movement produces tension forces instead of compression forces. The area under tension produces normal faults and rock along these faults is displaced upwards.

Examples: Utah, Arizona, & New Mexico)
What are dome mountains?
Are formed as magma tries to push up through the crust but fails to break the surface. Dome mountains resemble a huge blister on the Earth's surface.
What are upwarped mountains? Give real examples.
Are created in association with a broad arching of the crust. They can also be formed by rock thrust upward along high angle faults.

Examples: Black hills of South Dakota
What's Volcanism, and it's relation to mountains?
It's a term given to the movement of magma through the crust and its emergence as lava onto the Earth's surface.

Volcanic mountains are built up by successive deposits of volcanic materials.
Types of Volcanic Mountains:
- Shield
- Cinder cone
- Composite
What are Shield Volcanoes?
Are associated with quiet eruptions.

Repeated lava flow builds this type of volcano into the largest volcanic mountain.

Mauna Loa found in Hawaii, is the largest volcano on Earth.
What are Cinder Cone volcanoes?
Are associated with explosive eruptions as lava is hurled high into the air in a spray of droplets of various sizes. The droplets cool and harden into cinders and particles of ash.

The cinder and ash settle around the vent, forming small but quite rapid, volcanoes.
What are composite volcanoes?
Described as being built by both lava flows and layers of ash and cinder.

Examples: Mt. Fuji; Mt. Saint Helens; Mt. Vesuvius.
Mechanisms of producing mountains:
- Folding
- dip-slip fault
- Reverse faults
- strike-slip fault
- transform fault
- oblique-slip fault
- cooling lava
- intrusive rock
- extrusive rock
- Dikes
- Caldera
Folded mountains are produced by...
the folding of rock layers. Crustal movements may press horizontal layers of sedimentary rock together from the sides, squeezing them into wavelike folds.
In terms of folded mountains, anticlines refer to...
up-folded sections of rock
In terms of folded mountains, synclines refer to...
down-folded sections of rock
Faulting movement can be ______, ________, or _______.
horizontal, vertical or oblique
Faults are fractures in the Earth's crust which have been created by...
either tension or compression forces transmitted through the crust.
Faultings are categorized on the basis of...
the relative movement between the blocks on both sides of the fault plane.
A dip-slip fault occurs when...
the movement of the plates is vertical and opposite.
In a dip-slip fault, the displacement is in the direction of the...
inclination, or dip, of the fault.
Dip-slip faults are classified as _______ faults, when....
normal; when the rock above the fault plane moves down relative to the rock below
Reverse faults are created when...
rock above the fault plane moves up relative to the rock below.
When are reverse faults referred to as thrust faults?
when reverse faults have a very low angle to the horizontal
What are strike-slip faults?
Are faults in which the dominant displacement is horizontal movement along the trend or strike (length) of the fault
What's a transform fault?
When a large strike-slip fault is associated with plate boundaries
What's a well known transform fault in the U.S.?
The San Andreas Fault in California
Describe a oblique-slip fault
Faults that have both vertical and horizontal movement
Igneous rock is formed when...
when lava cools
Intrusive rock includes...
any igneous rock that was formed below the Earth's surface.
Batholiths are...
the largest structures of intrusive-type rock and are composed of near granite materials
Batholiths are the core of what U.S. geographical feature?
the Sierra Nevada Mountains
Extrusive rock includes...
any igneous rock that was formed at the Earth's surface
What's the volcano neck?
where in an inactive volcano that has magma solidified in its pipe.
Why might the volcano neck be the only evidence of the past presence of an active volcano?
Because it's resistant to erosion
During the most recent ice age, a large part of North America was covered by a...
continental glacier
Evidence of a continental glaciation includes... (4)
- abrasive grooves
- large boulders from northern environments dropped in southernly locations
- glacial troughs created by the rounding out of steep valleys by glacial scouring
- presence of cirques
Glacial cirques are...
is an amphitheatre-like valley head, formed at the head of a valley glacier by erosion
A moraine is...
any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (soil and rock) which can occur in currently glaciated and formerly glaciated
What evidence helps support the theory of periods of warmth during the past ice ages?
remains of plants and animals found in warm climate that have been discovered in moraines and out wash plains.
The Ice Age began about...
2-3 million years ago.
What are some theories relating to the origin of glacial activity?
Plate tectonics: continental masses, now in temperate zones, were at one time blanketed by ice and snow.

Earth's orbit around the Sun: changes in the angle of the Earth's axis, and the wobbling of the Earth's axis; correlated between climatic sensitive microorganisms and the changes in the Earth's orbital status.
Describe the U.S.'s glacial history
About 12,000 years ago, a vast sheet of ice covered a large part of the northern United States. This huge, frozen mass had moved southward from the northern regions of Canada as several large bodies of slow-moving ice, or glaciers.
What is an ice age?
A time period in which glaciers advance over a large portion of a continent.
What is a glacier?
Is a large mass of ice that moves or flows over the land in response to gravity. Glaciers form among high mountains and in other cold regions.
What are the two types of glaciers?
Valley & continental
What do valley glaciers do?
Erosion by valley glaciers is characteristic of U-shaped erosion. They produce sharp peaked mountains such as the Matterhorn in Switzerland.
What do continental glaciers do?
They often ride over mountains in their paths leaving smoothed, rounded mountains and ridges.
The biological history of the Earth is partitioned into...
four major eons.
The most recent eon is the ______ (? years), and marks what?
Phanerozoic eon (570 million years ago); marks the beginning of life.
The four eons are broken into...
10 eras
The current eon has the following eras: (describe each)
Cenozoic (age of recent life)
Mesozoic (age of middle life)
Paleozoic (age of ancient life)
Each era is divided into:
periods
Cenozoic era is subdivided into: (recall time ranges)
Quaternary period (1.6 Ma - present)
Tertiary period (66 - 1.6 Ma)
Mesozoic era is subdivided into: (recall time ranges)
Cretaceous period (144-66 Ma)
Jurassic & Triassic (245-144 Ma)
Paleozoic era is subdivided into: (recall time ranges)
Permian & Carboniferous (360-245 Ma)
Devonian (408-360 Ma)
Silurian & Ordovician (505-408 Ma)
Cambrian (570-505 Ma)
The end of an era is most often characterized by... (3 points)
1. a general uplifting of the crust
2. the extinction of the dominant plants or animals
3. the appearance of new life-forms.
Each of the 12 periods is broken up into ______, usually described as _____, ______, and _____.
epochs; early, middle, and late.
On the ______ epochs have names. They are: (7)
Cenozoic

1. Holocene
2. Pleistocene
3. Pleistocene
4. Miocene
5. Oligocene
6. Eocene
7. Paleocene
Describe the characteristics of this period: Quaternary
The Ice Age occurred, and human beings evolved.
Describe the characteristics of this period: Tertiary
Mammals and birds evolved to replace the great reptiles and dinosaurs that had just become extinct.

Forests gave way to grasslands, and the climate became cooler.
Describe the characteristics of this period: Cretaceous
Reptiles and dinosaurs roamed the Earth.

Most of the modern continents had split away from the large landmass, Pangea, and many were flooded by shallow chalk seas.
Describe the characteristics of this periods: Jurassic & Triassic
Reptiles were beginning to evolve. Pangea started to break up. Deserts gave way to forests and swamps.
Describe the characteristics of this periods: Permian & Carboniferous
Continents came together to form one big landmass, Pangea.

Forests (that formed today's coal) greww on deltas around the new mountains, and deserts formed.
Describe the characteristics of this period: Devonian
Continents started moving toward each other.

The first land animals, such as insects and amphibians, existed. Many fish swam in the seas.
Describe the characteristics of this periods: Silurian & Ordovician
Sea life flourished, and the first fish evolved.

The earliest land plants began to grow around shorelines and estuaries.
Describe the characteristics of this period: Cambrian
No life on land, but all kinds of sea animals existed.
A sequential history of geology can be determined by what methods?
by fossil content (principle of fossil succession) of a rock system.

And by stratigraphy
What is stratigraphy?
The process of classifying a rock system by observing its superposition within a range of systems.

Rock systems are arranged in their correct chronological order.
What's Uniformitarianism?
A fundamental concept in modern geology, stating that the physical, chemical, and biological laws that operated in the geological past operate in the same way today.

The forces and processes that we observe presently shaping our planet have been at work for a very long time.
Catastrophism is the concept that:
the Earth was shaped by catastrophic events of a short term nature.
Estimates of the Earth's age have been made possible with the discovery of:
radiation, and the invention of instruments that can measure the amount of radioactivity in rocks.
Absolute dating
the use of radioactivity to make accurate determinations of Earth's age
Before using radioactivity, a geological time scale was developed using:
relative dating and the law of superposition.
What are lines of latitude?
Imaginary lines drawn east and west of the parallel to the equator.
What are meridians?
Imaginary lines drawn north and south at right angles to the equator and from pole to pole.
Longitude is a term used...
to describe distances in degrees east or west of a 0 degree meridian.
The prime meridian is the...
0 degree meridian and it passes through Greenwich, England.
Time zones are determined by...
longitudinal lines
Each time zone represents...
1 hour
Each time zone is roughly how wide?
15 degrees
While time zones are based on ______, they do not strictly follow lines of _______. Time zone boundaries are subject to ________ decisions.
meridians; longitude; political
A contour lines is...
a line on a map representing an imaginary line on the ground that has the same elevation above sea level along its entire path.
Contour intervals usually are given in...
even numbers or as a multiple of five.
Relief describes...
how much variation in elevation an area has.
Five general rules should be remembered in studying contour lines on a map:
1. Contour lines close around hills and basins or depressions.

2. Contours lines never cross.

3. Contour lines appear on both sides of an area where the slope reverses direction.

4. Contour lines form V's that point upstream when they cross streams.

5. All contours lines either close (connect) or extend to the edge of the map. No map is large enough to have all its contour lines to close.
Hachur lines are used to... and look like....
show depressions: short lines placed at right angles to the contour line and they always point toward the lower elevation.
A contour line that has hachures is called a...
depression contour
In terms of slope, contour lines lines show where an imaginary...
horizontal plane would slice through a hillside or cut both sides of a valley
Topographic maps are also referred to as...
quadrangles
Maximum relief refers to...
the difference in elevation between the high and low points in the area being considered.
World weather patterns are greatly influenced by...
ocean surface currents in the upper layer of the ocean.
Deep-surface currents are...
ocean currents that flow deep below the surface.
Sub-surface currents are influenced by factors, such as: (2)
- locations of landmasses in the current's path
- the Earth's rotation
Surface currents are caused by _____, and are classified by ______.
winds; temperature
Cold ocean currents originate in the ______ regions and flow through ______ water that is ______
polar regions: surrounding water; measurably warmer.
Warm currents are...
currents with a higher temperature than the surrounding water
Warm currents can be found near the...
equator
Warm currents follow what kind of routes?
swirling routes around the ocean basins and the equator.
What are the two main surface currents that flow along the coastlines of the U.S.?
The Gulf Stream and the California Current.
The Gulf stream is _____ current, and flows from the ______ to _____.
warm; equator; to the northern parts of the Atlantic
The California Current is a _____ current that originates in the ____ regions and flows...
cold; Arctic; southward along the west coast of the U.S.
What also creates ocean currents?
differences in water density
Water tends to flow from a ______ area to a _____ area.
denser; less dense
Currents that flow because of a difference in the density of the ocean water are called:
density currents
Besides water density, what else can form a density current?
water that has salinity different from the surrounding water
Who studied and named the Gulf Stream?
Benjamin Franklin
Movement of ocean water is caused by...(5)
- wind
- the sun's heat energy
- the Earth's rotation
- the moon's gravitational pull on the Earth
- by underwater earthquakes
Most ocean waves are caused by:
wind
How does the wind's impact cause waves?
wind blowing over the surface of the ocean transfer energy (friction) to the water and causes waves to form.
Describe the Florida peninsula.
It's a porous plateau of limestone on top of bedrock.
Florida's limestone layers is covered with _____ soils, which were deposited over millions of years as _________.
sandy; global sea levels rose and fell.
During the last glacial period, Florida was a much.... made up of...
wider peninsula; grassy plains with few trees
The largest wetland in the U.S.
Florida's Everglades
The Florida Everglade system spans...
begins near Orlando with the Kissimmee River, which discharges into the vast but shallow Lake Okeechobee.
During the wet season, what happens to the water in Lake Okeechobee?
Water leaves the lake, forming a slow-moving river 60 miles wide and over 100 miles long, flowing southward across a limestone shelf to Florida Bay and the southern end of the state.
A fossil is...
the remains or trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved naturally in the Earth's crust.
______ rocks are rich sources of fossil remains.
Sedimentary
Few fossils are found in ______ rock and virtually none found in ______ rocks.
metamorphic; igneous
Sedimentary rock are rich sources of fossil remains because...
those fossils found in layers of sediment were embedded in the slowly forming sedimentary rock strata.
The best-preserved animal remains have been discovered in...
natural tar pits
Fossil molds are...
the hollow spaces in a rock previously occupied by bones or shells.
A fossil cast is..
a fossil mold that fills with sediments or minerals that later hardens forming a cast.
Fossil tracks are...
the imprints in hardened mud left behind by birds or animals.
What is lithification?
the process of when fluid sediments are transformed into solid sedimentary rocks.
One very common process affecting sediments is...
compaction
Compaction is...
the process where the weights of overlying materials compress and compact the deeper sediments.
The compaction process leads to....
cementation
Cementation is when...
sediments are converted to sedimentary rock.
Igneous rocks can be classified according to...
- texture
- composition
- the way they formed
Describe who igneous rocks form, that explains texture/composition variances:
Molten rock pouring out onto the surface of the earth, is called lava.

As magma cools, the elements and compounds begin to form crystals.

The slower the magma cools, the larger the crystals grow.

Rocks with large crystals are said to have a course-grained texture. Rocks that cool rapidly before any crystals can form have a glassy texture.
Granite is a _____ rock type, with a _____ grain.
igneous; course
Rocks that cool rapidly before any crystals can form have a....
glassy texture.
An example of glassy rock is:
obsidian, or volcanic glass
Metamorphic rocks are formed by... (2 points)
high temperatures and great pressures
The outcome of metamorphic changes (in rocks) include:
- deformation by extreme heat and pressure
- compaction
- destruction of the original characteristics of the parent rock
- bending and folding while in a plastic stage
- the emergence of completely new and different minerals due to chemical reactions with heated water and dissolved minerals.
Metamorphic rocks are classified into 2 groups:
Foliated (leaflike) rocks
Unfoliated.
Foliated rocks consist of...
compressed, parallel bands of minerals, which give the rocks a striped appearance.
Examples of foliated rocks include:
slate, schist, and gneiss
Unfoliated rocks are not _____ and examples include:
banded; quartzite, marble, and anthracite.
Minerals must adhere to five criteria:
1. non-living
2. formed in nature
3. solid in form
4. their atoms form a crystalline pattern
5. its chemical composition is fixed within narrow limits.
The major groups of minerals are: (6)
- silicates
- carbonates
- oxides
- sulfides
- sulfates
- halides
The largest mineral group is the: (examples)
silicates; silicon, oxygen, and one or more other elements.
2 things determine mineral type:
chemical composition & crystal structure
Polymorphs are:
two or more minerals having identical chemical composition, but varied crystal structure.
Two common polymorphs that demonstrate the influence of crystal structure on physical properties.
Diamonds & Graphite
Silicate minerals are composed mostly of:
silicon and oxygen
Silicate is the _____ class of minerals, and includes:
most abundant; quartz, garnets, micas, and feldspars.
Carbonate class minerals are formed from compounds including:
carbonate ions
Carbonate minerals are commonly found in what environments, and why?
marine; where minerals can form via dissolution and precipitation
Common examples of Carbonates
Nitrate and borate
Sulfate minerals contain
sulfate ions
Sulfates are formed near...
bodies of water where slow evaporation allows precipitation of sulfates and halides.
Examples of sulfates include:
gypsum, celestite, barite
Halide minerals include all minerals formed from...
natural salts
Like sulfides, halides are formed in what environments?
evaporative settings
Examples of halide minerals include:
fluorite, halite, and sylvite
Oxide minerals contain _____ compounds, including...
oxide; iron oxide, magnetite oxide, and chromium oxide
Oxide minerals are formed by...
various processes including precipitation and oxidation of other minerals.
Oxide minerals are important in...
mining
Examples of oxide minerals include:
Hematite, chromite, rutile, and magnetite
Sulfide minerals are formed from _____ compounds
sulfide
What kind of metal ores are found in the Sulfide class?
important ones
Examples of sulfide minerals include:
pyrite (fool's gold) & galena
Phosphate minerals include materials containing ____ ions & ....
phosphate; any mineral with a tetrahedral molecular geometry in which an element is surrounded by four oxygen atoms.
Phosphates are important biologically, as the are common in...
teeth and bones
Examples of minerals in phosphates include:
phosphate, aresenate, vanadate, and antimonte.
Element class minerals are formed from ______, whether they are....
pure elements; metallic, semi-metallic or non-metallic.
Examples of element class minerals include:
gold, silver, copper, bismuth, and graphite, as well as natural alloys such as electrum and carbides.
Describe frost wedging:
is the cycle of daytime thawing and refreezing at night. This cycle causes large rock masses to be broken into small pieces.
Physical weathering is:
the process by which rocks are broken down into smaller fragments without undergoing any change in chemical composition.
Exfoliation is
the peeling away of the outer layers from a rock
Chemical weather is:
the breaking down of rocks through changes in their chemical composition
The main agents of chemical weathering:
- water
- oxygen
- carbon dioxide
How does water and carbon dioxide weather rocks?
They combine chemically, producing a weak acid.
Another word for sedimentation is:
deposition
Soils are composed of particles of:
- sand
- clay
- various minerals
- tiny living organisms
- humus
- decayed remains of flora/fauna
Soils are divided into ____ classes according to their _____.
three; texture
The 3 classes of soils are:
- sandy soils
- clay soils
- loamy soils
Sand soils are described as:
gritty, and their particles do not bind together firmly.

Sandy soils are porous, do not hold much water
Clay soils are described as:
smooth and greasy; their particles bind together firmly.

Clay soils are moist and usually do not allow water to pass through them easily.
Loamy soils can be described as:
feeling somewhat like velvet and their particles clump together.

Loamy soils are made up of sand, clay, and silt.

They hold water but some water can pass through.
In addition to 3 main classes (what are they?), soils are further grouped into three major types based upon their ________.
based on composition

- pedalfers
- pedocals
- laterites
Pedalfers form in...
the humid, temperate climate of the eastern U.S.
Pedalfer soils contain large amounts of.... making the soild look...
iron oxide and aluminum-rich clays, making th soil a brown to reddish brown color.
Pedalfer soils supports _______ type vegetation.
forest
Pedocals are found in...
the western U.S. where the climate is dry and temperate.
Pedocal soils are rich in _______.
calcium carbonate
Pedocal soils supports what kind of vegetation (2)?
grasslands & bush
Laterites are found...
where the climate is wet and tropical. Large amounts of water flow through this soil.
Laterites are what color and rich in what?
red-orange; rich in iron and aluminum oxides.
What kind of vegetation does laterite soil support?
It's not very fertile, containing very little humus.
Dry air is composed of three basic components:
- dry gas
- water vapor
- solid particles (dust from soil,etc.)
The most abundant dry gases in the atmosphere are: (most to least)
- nitrogen
- oxygen
- argon
- carbon dioxide
Layers of the atmosphere are: (closest to farthest)
- troposphere
- stratosphere
- mesosphere
- thermosphere
- exosphere
Facts about the troposphere:
- closest to Earth's surface
- all weather occurs here
- Air temp. decreases w/increasing altitude
- 7 miles thick
Facts about the stratosphere:
- contains very little water vapor
- clouds in this layer are extremely rare
- ozone is located in the upper part
- temperature is fairly constant, but does increase somewhat b/c of the absorption of solar energy & ultraviolet rays.
Facts about the mesosphere:
- air temperature decreases with height
- is the coldest layer (-100 C at the top)
Facts about the thermosphere:
- extends upward into space
- oxygen molecules absorb energy from the sun, causing temperatures to increase with height.
- here charged particles or ions and free electrons can be found
Facts about the exosphere:
- gas molecules are very far apart
- includes the Van Allen belts, which are energetic charged particles held together by Earth's magnetic field.
Clouds form when:
air above the surface cools below the point when liquid water forms
The shape of a cloud depends on:
the air movement that forms it
Stratiform clouds are formed by:
horizontal air movement
Cumuliform clouds are formed by:
vertical air movements
El Nino refers to:
a sequence of changes in the ocean and atmospheric circulation across the Pacific Ocean.
Describe the El Nino sequence:
The water around the equator is unusually hot every 2 to 7 years.

Trade winds normally blow east to west across the equatorial latitudes, piling warm water in the western Pacific.

A huge mass of heavy thunderstorms usually forms in the area and produces vast currents of rising air that displaces heate poleward.

This helps create the strong mid-latitude jet streams.

The word's climate patterns are disrupted by this change in location of thunderstorm activity.
Air currents are:
masses of air moving toward or away from the Earth's surface.