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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Two most dominant physical features in the Middle East
Deserts and Mountains
Lifeblood of Egypt
Nile River
Floods to form the fertile crescent
Tigris and Euphrates
Land Between Rivers (aka)
Mesopotamia a.k.a.Cradle of Civilization (where man established the first settlement
Means deserts are growing
desertification
shortage of food and water
scarcity
using water to turn the desert green
irrigation
mixing water and fertilizer and forcing it in the ground to make the desert green
fertigation
taking salt out of water to make it usable
desalination
what is the middle east to asia africa and europe?
crossroads
who conquered the middle east?
Persians
Greeks
Romans
who did the romans kick out of the middle east
jews
dispersian of jews from their homeland
diaspora
after arabs gain control of the ME, christian Europeans attack them, to recover the holy land in what was known as
the crusades
ottoman empire ruled for over
600 years
who did the ottoman empire side with in ww1 and against who
with germans
against British and french
ends fighting over the ottoman empires control of the ME
Mudros Armistice
Arabs promised independence by Britain and France in the
Mcmahon-Hussein treaty
arabs betrayed by british and france in the
Sykes-Picot treaty
Arabs still hate the
West
British and French interested in the ME because
$$$ Trade
Oil Suez Canal
New term for colony when Brits and French take over ME
Mandate
calls for a jewish homeland in palestine
Balfour Declaration
Balfour Declaration starts
Zionism
European jews immigrate to palestine to escape
Pogroms and the Holocaust
jews outnumber thesse people in palestine after immigration
Arabs
England and france give up and give the ME
independence
these people split palestine into israel and palestine for the jews to have a homeland
United Nations
Arab nations attack newly israeli jews and these countrys help them defend themselves
britian and france
Palestinians flee palestine and become
refugees
this org. was created to represent the refugees
PLO
who was the president of eg7ypt during the suez crisis
Nasser
Britain France and israel invade egypt to keep canal open and usa and russia force them to withdraw
sinai war
who builds the aswan high dam for egypt
russia
Usa feared communism in the ME because of the
Domino Theory
syria jordan and egypt attack this country in 1967
Israel
israel wins in 6 days and takes the and takes
the golan heights from syria
the west bank from jordan
the sinai penninsula from egypt
these countries attack israel in 1973 to regain their land back
syria jordan and egypt
United nations negotiated a
cease-fire
USA punishes russia for invading by
wheat embargo
boycotting the olympics
USA doesnt want the domino theory and these people taking over the oil in the ME
Communists
Camp David
Begin and Sadat meet with Carter and make peace
Israel returns the Sinai penninsula to egypt
After sadat made peace with the west
he got shot
Shah
Political monarch in iran
iranians hated the shah because
he brought modern ways and reformed iran
islamic revolution occurs and the shah is replaced by
Ayatollah Khomeini
the shah was given asylum in the US so iran seizes
the us embassy and 52 hostages
this country threatens to invade jordan to get to the PLO
israel
PLO stands for
Palestinian
Liberation
Organization
Plo was founded by
Yasser Arafat
when the PLO was kicked out of jordan, the cause trouble in
Lebanon
in the iran iraq war, the USA sides with this country because the other country held their hostages
Iraq
Iran
israel invades this country because the PLO went here after being kicked out of Jordan
Lebanon
militant uprising of PLO
intifada
US sends marines as peacekeepers to let this country pull out of Lebanon
Israel
How many US soldiers are killed in the marine barracks bombing in beirut?
251
iran contra affair is when
we wanted to helped the Nicaragua contra rebels so we sold weapons to iran
moderates helped americans retrieve seven hostages from
pro-Iranian groups in Lebanon
who took most of the blame for the Iran-Contra affair?
Oliver North
Intifada
means uprising in arab
happend twice in '87 and '00
Palestine campaigns in occupied territories against israeli rule
who threatens to invade saudi arabia while invading kuwait?
iraq in the persian gulf war
desert shield
US troops sent to stop invasion of saudi arabia
desert storm
US troops sent to invade kuwait and kick iraq out
this country was environmentally destroyed from the war and saddam setting fire to the oil wells
Kuwait
Oslo peace accords
rabin and arafat meet with clinton to stop violence and let palestine rule themselves
why does US invade afghanistan? in october 2001
response to 911 attacks
taliban overthrown and these forces were killed
Al Qaeda
war on terrorism aka
war in iraq
war in iraq starts because of ties to al qaeda and allegal possesion of
WMDs
within one month,
baghdad falls and saddam is captured
in '05, iraq voted on two types of gov't but is still divided into
Constitution/Parliament

Sunnis/Shiites/Kurds
Judaism was the first
Monotheistic religion
patriarch of all three ME religions
Abraham
agreement between abraham and god to believe only in one god and hebrews would flourish
Divine Covenant
Holy book of Judaism with the first five books of the old testament
Torah
4 main holidays of Judaism
Yom Kippur
Rosh Hashannah
Channukah
Passover
Holy House of Jews
Synagogue
Holy rules of christians and jews
10 commandments
founder of christianity
Jesus of Nazareth
jesus was the
Messiah
holy book to christians
Bible
christians believe in
Heaven

jesus is the son of god
jesus was this after three days dead
ressurected
islam means
submission to god
last and final prophet of god who got the word of allah from archangel gabriel
Muhammed
holy house of muslims with four corners
mosque/minarets
holy month of sacrifice
Ramadan
Arabic word for god
Allah
holy war of conversion
Jihad
birthplace of Muhammed
Mecca
first city to convert to islam
Medina
muslims believe in afterlife according to ones
actions
five pillars of islam
allah is the only god
give alms to the poor
observe ramadan
pray five times a day
hajj to Mecca
shiites vs sunnis
shiites believe that a succesor to muhammed should be a blood relative
while sunnis believe he should be elected
islamic fundamentalism
literal interpretation of the koran and not allowing western values
divine chain of prophets
abraham
moses
david
sacred to all three religions
jerusalem
sacred structures in jerusalem
Muslims- dome of the rock
Christians- church of the holy schelpture
Jews- western wall
taliban ruled from '94-'01 in
Afghanistan
original leader of al qaeda
Osama Bin Laden
martyr
someone who dies for their religion
Muja Hadin
freedom fighters on a jihad mostly fought against the russians
Hamas
Palestinian terrorist political party
threats to women in the ME
honor killings rediculous punishments FGM
Arabs
Arabian penninsula
Palestinians
Palestine
Persians
Iran
Turks
Turkey
Israelis
Israel (Europeans and arabs)
Kurds
Kurdistan
OPEC
70s inflation
80s deflation
petroleum company