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31 Cards in this Set

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aliyah
literally "the act of going up" as in ascending to Jerusalem; term designates Jewish immigration to Palestine or Israel
Ashkenazim
Jews whose recent ancestors were of E European origin
ayatollah
title given to the most eminent Shi'a legal experts
Bazaaris
urban bazaar merchants of Iran
capitulations
commercial treaties b/w the Ottoman empire and states of W Europe granting Europeans favorable tariffs and extraterritorial privileges
ijma
consensus of legal scholars or of the muslim community regarding islamic law
ijtihad
informed human reason to decide matters of islamic law
infitah
"opening" - policy of economic liberalization introduced into Egypt in the 70s
intifada
to be "shaken off" - palestinian protest movement that began in 1987 against Israeli occupation of the W Bank and Gaza. 2nd intifada began sep. 2000
Majlis
council, parliament
Marja al-Taqlid
source of emulation; in Shi'ism, a learned scholar of Islamic law whose legal opinions are binding on all Muslims who have accepted him as their spiritual guide
Mujtahid
one who is recognized as competant to exercise ijtihad
qiyas
analogical reasoning or deduction based on quran or hadith, one of the sources of shar'iah
salafiyyah
"ancestor" - pious muslims who lived at the time of the prophet and the rashidun. also a 20th c. reform movement calling for return to principles followed by ancestors
salat
obligatory muslim ritual prayer, one of the 5 pillars
sawm
fasting - Ramadan
sephardim
jews whose ancestors came from Spain, later loosely applied to "oriental jews from ME and N Africa to distinguish them from ashkenazim
shahadah
proclamation of faith
shahanshah
king of kings, ancient iranian concept of all-powerful monarch
sharif
those claiming direct descent from Muhammad
shaykh
tribal leader, head of religious order, elder
shaykh al-Islam
head of islamic religious establishment during ottoman empire
sultan
means power, authority. political title distinct from caliph
sunnah
custom, the way of the prophet
sura
chapter in the quran
ulama
members of the islamic religious establishment
ummah
community of believers - universal islamic community
vilayat-i faqih
exercise of governmental authority by a jurist; part of the constitution of the islamic republic of iran
waqf
donation to charity
yishuv
name for Jewish community in Palestine prior to 1948
zakat
fixed share of income all muslims pay as an alms tax, one of 5 pillas